Trends in ITS Andras Csepinszky DEFINITION OF ITS Vehicle telematics • • • • • • Telecommunication Vehicular technologies Road transportation Road safety Electrical engineering Computer science ITS – what the hell is that? • Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are advanced applications which aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks Source: Wikipedia SCOPE OF ITS To do what? • SafeMobility – Improve road safety • SmartMobility – Make use of the available information • to take the right decisions in driving • to make traffic management more efficient • CleanMobility – Reduce the impact of road transportation on the environment Make road transport safer • Pre-crash measures – Collision avoidance systems – awareness, warning, mitigation • Collision unavoidable – Active and passive measures – emergency braking, intelligent seat belt, etc • Post-crash measures – Emergency call Make road transport smarter • Provide accurate, relevant and up-to-date information to the driver and to the traffic management center • Electronic Road Tolling • Fleet management • Make vehicles interact with each other and with the infrastructure • Globally connected vehicle? (Advantage and threats) Make road transport greener • Reduce fuel consumption / CO2 emission of traditional vehicles • Make use of electric vehicles and other environment-friendly solutions (when and where?) • Multimodality: freight and passenger traffic ITS EVOLUTION Proprietary systems • Specified and developed for a single market stakeholder (group) • No interoperability is possible with another systems • Specific coverage/market • IPR protected Standardized systems • Specified by the industry on the basis of consensus • Interoperability is possible with another systems developed on the basis of the standard • Generic coverage/market • May be IPR protected – but IPR has to be declared Successfully deployed ITS services and technologies in the EU • • • • • Electronic road tolling (GNSS and DSRC based) DATEX/DATEX II (EasyWay project) Variable Message Signs RDS-TMC (Traffic Information) Community-based traffic information (Waze, TomTom, Here) • Probe Vehicle/Device Data • E-call, B-call, concierge services Standardized services in “silos” • Today’s deployed ITS services are organised in “silos” Traffic information Electronic road charging Emergency call After theft tracking Services in “silos” • Today’s deployed ITS services are organised in “silos” • Proprietary content is locked to a single “silo” Traffic information Electronic road charging Services in “silos” • Today’s deployed ITS services are organised in “silos” • Proprietary content is locked to a single “silo” • No common data dictionary Services in “silos” • Today’s deployed ITS services are organised in “silos” • Proprietary content is locked to a single “silo” • No common data dictionary • Each solution has unique strength and gaps • All this is resulting limited or no interoperability, duplication of HW and SW development effort TRENDS IN ITS E-Call • Mandated by the EC • Standardized by CEN TC278 • Piloted by Integrated Projects co-funded by the EC • Planned deployment – By regulatory measures – In all EU countries Electronic Toll Collection • • • • European Electronic Toll Services Mandated by the EC M/338 Standardized by CEN TC278 Supported by EC Directives: “Directive 2004/52/EC and related Decision 2009/750/EC aim to achieve the interoperability of all the electronic road toll systems in the European Union in order to avoid the proliferation of incompatible systems, which may compromise both the smooth operation of the internal market and the achievement of transport policy objectives”. (source: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/media/publications/doc/2011-eets-european-electronictoll-service_en.pdf) Traffic and traveller information • RDS-TMC, TPEG • Developed by industry consortia – TMC Forum, – TPEG Forum, – Mobile.Info project • Traveller Information Services Association formed by the members of the above three organisations • Business driven • ITS Directive (2010/40/EU) stipulates in its article 3 as priority actions: a) b) c) the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services; the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services; data and procedures for the provision, where possible, of road safety related minimum universal traffic information free of charge to users; Driver Assistance Systems • Traditional driver support systems – Anti-lock Braking System, Electronic Stability Control, Acceleration Skid Control, Cruise Control with limited sensor system and features • Advanced systems – Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Departure Warning, Lane Change Assistance, Intelligent Speed Adaptation, Collision Avoidance System, Adaptive Light Control, Automatic Parking, Traffic Sign Recognition, Blind Spot Detection, Driver Drowsiness Detection Other services • • • • • Fleet management Remote diagnostics After theft systems for vehicle recovery Probe data ….. Cooperative systems • ACP (Application Communication Protocol)+ GATS (Global Automotive Telematics Standards) • GTP (Global Telematics Protocol) • GST (Global System for Telematics) • CVIS + COOPERS + SAFESPOT • COMeSafety + COMeSafety 2 • Pre-DriveC2X + Drive C2X • FOTSiS +Freilot + ECOMOVE + COMPASS 4D + ….. Definition I. • The European Union has given the following definition of cooperative systems: “Cooperative systems are ITS systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and infrastructure-to-infrastructure (I2I) communications for the exchange of information. Cooperative systems have the potential to further increase the benefits of ITS services and applications. (European Commission, 2009)” Definition II. A co-operative ITS is a subset of the overall ITS that – communicates and – shares information between ITS Stations* to – give advice or – facilitate actions with the objective of improving • Safety, sustainability, efficiency and comfort beyond the scope of stand-alone systems. * ITS Station is defined in ISO 21217 and ETSI EN 302 665, e. g. units installed in vehicles, at the road side, in traffic control/management centers, in service centers, or hand-held units. Source: ETSI EN 302 665 v1.1.1 Cooperative systems • Support from the industry stakeholders – Car manufacturer OEMs – Infrastructure operators • Road • Network • Support from the European Commission – FP6, FP7 projects co-funded by the EC – Standardization mandate M/453 to develop a minimum set of standards needed to an initial deployment Source: ETSI Source: ETSI EN 302 665 v1.1.1 It’s all about information Source: iMobilitySupport It’s all about information Source: iMobilitySupport The goal of cooperative ITS • Avoid technical ITS islands – Foster common interfaces to information and services, common service discovery and system management, common market places, common hardware • Avoid operational ITS islands – Foster programmed roll-out: similar road-map of services with common interpretation, common legal framework (liability, certification), common performance requirements • Ensure fair global market – Based on the necessary costs, investments and risk of stakeholders and peoples’ privacy needs cITS from infrastructure view Source: FOTSIS project So what? • Helps infrastructure operators to get quick and reliable picture about the current traffic conditions • May integrate services and features in a single architecture decreasing implementation and production cost • Creates global network of vehicles and infrastructure – acting as vehicle probe for data provision Deployment activities: cITS corridor Deployment activities: cITS corridor Road transport automation • SARTRE project: – Platooning – Cooperative control – Use in highways • Citymobil project – Stand-alone system – Sensor-fusion and management center – Use in urban environment Road transport automation • Cooperative ADAS – Uses the vehicles around as extension to its sensor sets • Accurate maps and positioning – Higher accuracy is needed for automated driving – Making more accurate maps – More accurate GNSS (GPS/GALILEO,GLONASS) • More advanced and cheaper sensors – LIDAR – Cameras Road transport automation • Infrastructure – Dedicated roads/lanes – roads are the bottleneck – Segregation/separation needed? – Guided vehicle or road vehicle approach? • Legislation – No national legal frameworks exist for automated vehicles – Vienna Convention Conclusions • ITS is moving from stand-alone, silo concept towards a globally connected, co-operative model • It is not possible to endlessly extend the road infrastructure – the efficiency of the traffic should be improved in order to make transportation sustainable • ITS has to provide answers to the problem of the infrastructure operators • Vehicle and road automation is in sight Issues • Globally connected vehicles and infrastructure represent – Security issues – Privacy issues – Liability issues • Legal framework including international conventions should be adapted • More interaction between vehicle industry stakeholders and infrastructure operations needed. 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