SEPTEMBER 08-12, 2014 - Institute of Economic Growth

SEPTEMBER 08-12, 2014
The millennium marks a paradigm shift in the field of developmental policies and
programmes in India. The turn of the century also coincides with a good economic
performance of India, though the social and human development indicators of the country
leave much to be desired. Given such intricacies, the reciprocity between health and
development has now traversed the domain of simple interpretations and has emerged as a
fundamental challenge to sustain economic growth and development in India. In fact, it is
this recognition of “Health in the process of economic and social development … [that] the
Government of India has resolved to launch the National Rural Health Mission [NRHM] to
carry out necessary architectural correction in the basic health care delivery system”
(NRHM Mission Document 2005-12).
The preamble of the NRHM mission document emphasizes on a synergistic approach by
relating health to determinants such as nutrition, sanitation, hygiene and safe drinking water.
The Mission also aims to revamp the health system (including Indian systems of medicine)
by increasing public health expenditure, strengthening health infrastructure, augmenting
human resources (medical, technical and managerial), decentralizing action planning, and
greater participation of community members in programme activities. Overall, it is expected
that such unprecedented efforts could help achieve the goal of improved “availability of and
access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in rural areas, the poor,
women and children” (ibid).
The Mission has completed its first phase from 2005-12 and with the inception of the 12th
Plan period (2012-17) further strengthening of strategies and approaches is evident. While
phase-1 of NRHM has performed well to achieve some of the desired objectives, yet there
remains a large unfinished agenda before the Mission. From a policy perspective it is also
critical to focus on equity concerns. As such, the health concerns marginalized sections of
the population both in rural and urban areas are remarkably similar. This, in part, led to
conception of the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM), which along with NRHM is now
referred to as the National Health Mission (NHM) of India.
NHM initiates with the vision to provide accessible, affordable and quality universal health
care, both preventive and curative, which would be accountable and at the same time
responding to the needs of the inhabiting population especially vulnerable social segment of
the country. In particular, the key objectives include in NHM are as follows:
Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)
Universal access to public health services such as women’s health, child health, drinking
water, sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and universal immunization.
Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
Population stabilization, gender & demographic balance.
Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care.
Promotion of healthy lifestyles.
With the encouraging performance of NRHM, Government of India launches the NUHM
covering all state capitals, district headquarters and other cities/towns with a population of
50,000 and above in a phased manner (cities and towns with a population below 50,000 will
be covered under NRHM). NUHM envisages to meet health care needs of the urban
population with the focus on urban poor, by making available to them essential primary
health care services and reducing their out of pocket expenses for treatment. This will be
achieved by strengthening the existing health care service delivery system, targeting the
people living in slums and converging with various schemes relating to wider determinants of
health like drinking water, sanitation, school education etc.
The NUHM is emerging as an urgent need to improve health status of urban poor by serving
quality health services. Since, according to Census of India 2011, the urban population is 377
million compared to 286 million in 2001. This increase is mainly led by migration, natural
increase and inclusion of new areas under urban. The percentage decadal change from 2001
to 2011 of urban population is 34 percent, which is higher than the overall decadal change of
population of India (18.3 percent). With increasing urban population, the proportion of poor
in urban areas has also increased many folds consequently many of them live in slum areas.
With ongoing demographic and epidemiological transition, urban health concerns are
received increased research and policy attention. In fact, urban areas are also severely
affected by problems associated with maternal and child health. Particularly, the poor
households from slum areas are among the unprivileged group as they have fewer resources
to allocate for health care services. Several of the public health challenges between poor
urban and rural people are common and includes, among others:
Incomplete information and lack of awareness regarding health and health care services
Weak public health system to provide primary health care services as several households
across slums is deprived of basic health care facilities.
Poor housing, sanitation and water management adversely affects the living environment
Poor outreach of the private sector
Despite, the similar health situation faced by urban poor the policies and health programmes
in India have remained more or less rural centric consequently the urban poor remained
neglected from better health services. The NRHM launched in 2005 has a key focus on
providing the equity health care needs in rural areas and, therefore, the poor section of urban
slums dwellers have remained in the periphery of the mission. Thus in the recent past, health
care needs of the urban population has received increasing policy attention, especially to
improve health and health care utilization by urban poor and other disadvantaged sections by
facilitating equitable access to quality health care.
Against this backdrop, the aim of this workshop is to assess the performance of the Mission
so far and to review the challenges ahead for the NHM. While reviewing aspects of rural and
urban health, the workshop will specifically aim to elicit the key concerns that deserve
sustained policy focus and concerted engagement within the public health systems and at all
Institute of Economic Growth (IEG) invites original research papers from researchers and
policy practitioners across India for the five-day workshop on National Health Mission
(NHM): Achievements and Challenges. The Workshop aims to elicit prominent health
concerns and its distributional pattern across Indian states with an emphasis on aspects of
urban health. The papers are expected to compare rural-urban disparities and also focus on
health concerns across urban slums. The broad thematic areas identified are as follows:
Mortality and Causes of Death
Infant and Child Mortality
Epidemiological and Disease Dynamics
Nutritional Health and Obesity
Maternal and Child Health
Child Health and Immunization
Adolescent Health
Health inequalities and gender gap
Contraception and Fertility Decline
Mental Health
Elderly Health and Health Care
Urbanization, Migration and Health
Water, sanitation facility and Health
Environment and Health
Review of Health Policies
Other Aspects of Urban Health
Extended abstracts or draft full papers on the thematic areas, including a title and author’s
affiliation, should be submitted by email to [email protected] by 31 July, 2014.
IEG will provide 3rd AC return railway fare and local hospitality to the participants during the
workshop. We aim to publish selected papers in an edited peer-reviewed volume.
Important dates:
Deadline for submission of abstracts :
31 July, 2014
Notification for the acceptance:
10 August, 2014
Deadline for submission of full papers:
31 August, 2014
Days of Workshop:
08 – 12 September, 2014
Workshop coordinator:
William Joe ([email protected])
Institute of Economic Growth,
University of Delhi Enclave, North Campus
Delhi 110007