Additional Notes: だい一 か (Lesson 1)

Fall, 2014 JAPA100 いっ
Additional Notes: だい一 か (Lesson 1) I. New Vocabulary 1. University Life A だいがく daigaku 大学
university; college A がくせい gakusee 学生
student A りゅうがくせい ryuugakusee 留学生
international student A せんせい sensee 先生
1. teacher; 2. Prof. [family name] y a mashi t a
e.g.,やま し たせんせい (Prof. Yamashita) (See p. 47 of the textbook.) A せんこう senkoo 専攻
major B だいがくせい daigakusee 大学生
B だいがくいんせい 2. だいがくのなまえ daigakuinsee 大学院生
university/college student [だいがく+がくせい] graduate student * A ばんくうばああいらんど
だいがく 3. Years in School Bankuubaa バンクーバー Vancouver Island University airando daigaku アイランド大学
A いちねんせい ichinensee 一年生
first year student(s) A にねんせい ninensee 二年生
second year student(s) A さんねんせい sannensee 三年生
third year student(s) A よねんせい yonensee 四年生
fourth year student(s) yo n
☓ よんねんせい, し ねんせい A なんねんせい nannensee 4. Nationality/Languages 何年生
what year at school? A かなだ(じん) Kanada (jin) カナダ(人)
Canada (Canadian [person]) A にほん(じん) Nihon (jin) 日本(人)
Japan (Japanese [person]) A ちゅうごく(じん) Chuugoku (jin) 中国(人)
People’s Republic of China (Chinese [person]) 2 A かんこく(じん) Kankoku (jin) 韓国人
A あめりか(じん) Amerika (jin) アメリカ(人) U.S.A. (American [person]) A いぎりす(じん) Igirisu (jin) イギリス(人) Britain (British [person]) A [country name] + ご ~go ~語
~ language e.g., にほんご (にほん+ご) Japanese language A えいご 5. Time eego 英語
English language A いま ima 今
now A ごぜん gozen 午前
A.M. A ごご gogo 午後
1. P.M.; 2. afternoon A ~じ ~ji ~時
~ o’clock South Korea (Korean [person]) i chi
e.g., いちじ [いち+じ] one o’clock
A ~はん ~han ~半
half past ni
6. Other Nouns e.g., にじはん
half past two A でんわ denwa 電話
telephone A ばんごう bangoo 番号
number *でんわばんごう =telephone number A ともだち tomodachi 友達
friend A なまえ namae 名前
name A わたし watashi 私
I kata 方 person (from Country) [formal] * A (Country の)かた N iho n no
kat a
e.g., にほんの かた Japanese person * A ひらがな hiragana B こうこう kookoo Hiragana 高校
high school 3 7. Other Words A なん/なに nan/nani 何
A あの/あのう ano/anoo um… (See p. 46 of the textbook)
A はい hai A ええ ee yes [formal] (See p. 46 of the textbook) yes [conversational] cf. はい (See p. 46 of the textbook) A いいえ iie A ~さん ~san what no Mr./Miss/Ms….. ~歳 e.g., さとうさん Mr./Miss/Ms. Sato (See p. 47 of the textbook) …years old Sato o
A ~さい ~sai go
e.g., ごさい five years old II. Additional Notes on Vocabulary/Expressions/Grammar 1. Basic Japanese Numbers (See also “Numbers” in Expression Notes on p. 46 and 47 of the textbook.) Set1 Set2 0 1 2 3 4 5 ぜろ いち に さん
ご ろく なな はち きゅう じゅう
zero ni san yon go roku nana hachi kyuu juu に
し ご
く じゅう
shi shichi
ku ichi れい いち ree 6 7 8 When the number is more than 10 
11 to 19 → じゅう & [the lower digit number] e.g., 13=10 & 3→じゅう (10) & さん (3) = じゅうさん 
20, 30,… → [the higher digit number in Set 1] & じゅう e.g., 20=2 & 10→に (2) & じゅう (10) = にじゅう 40=よんじゅう ×しじゅう 
21 to 99 → [the higher digit number] & じゅう & [the lower digit number] e.g., 35→3 & 10+5=さん (3) & じゅう (10) & ご (5) =さんじゅうご Culture Note: The following numbers are associated to bad luck, like “13” in English. 4→死(し)=death 9→苦(く)= pain, suffering 9 10 4 2. Telephone numbers in Japanese (See also “Giving one’s telephone number” on p. 47 of the textbook.) a. Basic Format Area Code (2 to 4 digits) ‐ (hyphen) Prefix (1to 4 digits) ‐ (hyphen) Numbers (4 digits) 03 ‐ 3421 ‐ 5987 ze ro sa n
sa n yo n ni i i chi
go o kyu u ha chi na na
ぜ ろさ ん
さん よ ん に いい ち
ごうきゅうは ち なな
Notes: 
The numbers in Set 1 are used when telling the telephone numbers. zero
y o n
kyu u
0, 4, 7, and 9 → 〇ぜろ、よん、なな、きゅう
re e
shi chi
✕れい、し、しち、く The vowels of the numbers having only one syllable (i.e., 2 [に] and 5 [ご]) are pronounced as long vowels as seen below: ni i
go o
2→にい ☓に 5→ごう b. Telling one’s telephone numbers no
☓ご de n wa ba n go o wa
Format: Person/Place の でんわばんごうは [Telephone Number]です。 (The person/place’s telephone number is [Telephone Number].) ya ma shi ta sa n
nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana
e.g., やましたさんの でんわばんごうは 2 8 3 - 9 5 4 7 です。 c. Asking for someone’s telephone numbers no
de n wa ba n go o wa
na n desuka
de n wa ba n go o wa
na n de su ka
Format: Person/Place の でんわばんごうは なんですか。 *なん=what (What is the person/place’s telephone number?) Example 1 A:(Person/Place の)でんわばんごうは なんですか。 nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana de su
B:2 8 3 - 9 5 4 7 です。 nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana de su ne
A:2 8 3 - 9 5 4 7 ですね。← Confirmation of the number Ha i
e e
so o de su
B:はい/ええ、そうです。 5 Example 2 d e n wa b a n g o o wa
na n desuka
A:(Person/Place の)でんわばんごうは なんですか。 nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana de su
B:2 8 3 - 9 5 4 7 です。 nii hachi san no kyuu goo nana yon de su ne
A:2 8 3 - 9 5 7 4 ですね。← Confirmation of the number i
nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana de su
B:いいえ、(2 8 3 -) 9 5 4 7 です。← Correction of the number nii hachi san no kyuu goo yon nana de su ne
A:2 8 3 - 9 5 4 7 ですね。← Confirmation of the number Ha i
e e
so o de su
B:はい/ええ、そうです。 3. Telling One’s Age sa i
Format: a number in Set 1+さい (=years old) e.g., 2 years old → に+さい=にさい 4 years old → よんさい ☓ しさい 7 years old → ななさい ☓ しちさい 9 years old → きゅうさい ☓ くさい くさい can mean “smelly” in Japanese! Notes: a) Some numbers change their original sounds when preceding さい. 1(いち)
→いっ+さい=いっさい ×いちさい 8(はち)
→はっ+さい=はっさい ×はちさい 10(じゅう) →じゅっ+さい=じゅっさい ×じゅうさい 
When the last digit of the age number is 1 or 8 (e.g., 11, 38) = the number in 10’s (e.g., 10, 20, 30) & the last digit number + さい e.g., 11 years old→10 & 1 years old→じゅう & いっさい=じゅういっさい 38 years old→30 & 8 years old→さんじゅう & はっさい=さんじゅうはっさい When the last digit of the age number is 0 (e.g., 40) 
= the first digit number & じゅっさい e.g., 40 years old→4 & 10 years old→よん & じゅっさい=よんじゅっさい b) 20 years old has two common ways of saying: はたち and にじゅっさい. 4. Order of Japanese Names (See also “Culture Note にほんじんのなまえ” on p. 45 of the textbook.) Format: Family Name + Given (First) Name 6 ki mu ra
ke shi
きむらたけし e.g., Takeshi Kimura family name given name
given name
family name Note: There is no space between the two names and no middle names in Japanese names. 5. Expressing and Asking for One’s Nationality ji n
Format: Country Name+じん (person) e.g., Japanese (person)→にほん+じん=にほんじん Canadian (person)→カナダ+じん=かなだじん か な だ
Be Careful!
This combination, however, does not sound very polite when you are referring to other people’s nationalities in face‐to‐face situations. Therefore, you should use it only when referring to the nationality of people below:  Yourself or your family members  Public figures, such as actors, singers, politicians  Historical figures (e.g., Christopher Columbus was an Italian.) no
ka ta
In face‐to‐face situations: Country Name+の かた Person from [the Country] ☓Country Name+じん Use this pattern to express the nationalities of people other than yourself or your family members. Ki mu ra sa n wa
ni ho n no
ka ta de su ka
× (To Kimura) きむらさんは にほんの かたですか。→ Asking for Kimura’s nationality ji n
きむらさんは にほんじんですか。 〇 (To Kimura) Wa ta shi
か な だ
わた し は カナダじんです。→Telling your own nationality × (To Kimura) Ka na da か な だ
e.g., ○ (To Kimura) わたしは カナダの かたです。 7 6. Expressing One’s Affiliation Format: Organization/School の Name X from/in Organization/School It is very common in Japan to state your affiliation (e.g., schools, companies, etc.) in self‐
introductions in formal settings such as meetings of people from various companies/schools. In order to do so, you need to use “NOUN1 の NOUN2” structure (see p. 44 and 45 of the textbook for details). to o za i da i ga ku no
ya ma shi ta
とうざいだいが く の やました Yamashita from Tozai University e.g., そ に い
ta na ka
ソニーの たなか Tanaka from Sony III. Japanese Writing System 1: Hiragana (See also p. 24 to 27 of the textbook) 1. Basic Hiragana Syllables: Confusing Characters See p. 24 to 26 of the textbook for a complete chart of characters a. A‐gyoo (“A” raw) to Ha‐gyoo 
あ お 
sa chi a o 
さ ち き さ 
ki sa く へ い こ 
I ko 
ku he こ た い し 
I shi 
ko ta た な ta na け は ほ ke ha ho b. A‐gyoo to Wa‐gyoo 
ほ ま 
ho ma 
ぬ め nu me お わ 
o wa 
ね れ わ ne re wa う ら 
u ra 
る ろ い り I ri 
ru ro 
し も shi mo ま よ ma yo 2. Sound Changes with Diacritic Symbols “゙” and “゚” See #2 on p. 25 of the textbook for a complete chart of characters When either symbols “゛” (だくてん) or “゜” (はんだくてん) is added to the upper right‐hand corner of a character in か, さ, た, and は gyoos, it changes the sound of the character as seen on the next page: 
か gyoo + ゛: k sounds →g sounds e.g., さ gyoo + ゛: s sounds →z sounds e.g., た gyoo + ゛: t sounds →d sounds e.g., は gyoo + ゛: h sounds →b sounds e.g., は gyoo + ゜: h sounds →p sounds e.g., か [ka]→が [ga] さ [sa]→ざ [za] し[shi]→じ[ji] た [ta]→だ [da] ち[chi]→ぢ[ji], つ[tsu]→づ[zu] は [ha]→ば [ba] は [ha]→ぱ [pa] 8 Notes: じ and ず are usually used to write the sounds [ji] and [zu] respectively. However, some words require ぢ and づ to be used. e.g., はなぢ (nose blood) つづく (to continue) ×じ ×ず 3. Long Vowels See #5‐A on p. 26 and 27 of the textbook for more information on spelling of long vowels. Rooma‐ji [aa] Hiragana Rooma‐ji [ee] ああ
いい うう [ii] [uu] Hiragana えい or ええ おう or おお [oo] A consonant plus a long vowel かあ [k] + [ii] = [ki] + [i] きい [k] + [uu] = [ku] + [u] くう *[k] + [ee] = [ke] + [e] けい (or けえ) *[k] + [oo] = [ko] + [o] こう (or こお) [k] + [aa] = [ka] + [a] [t] + [aa] = [ta] + [a] [t] + [ii] = [chi] + [i] [t] + [uu] = [tsu] + [u] *[t] + [ee] = [te] + [e] *[t] + [oo] = [to] + [o] たあ ちい つう てい (or てえ) とう (or とお) Summary  The long vowel of [a] →spelled with あ  The long vowel of [i] and [e] → spelled with い  The long vowel of [u] and [o] →spelled with う  Note: 
In most words, [‐ee] and [‐oo] vowels are spelled with い and う respectively. However, be careful for those which spelled with え and お respectively. e.g. “Older sister”→おねえさん ☓おねいさん “faraway”→とおい ☓とうい 4. Combination sounds See #3 on p. 25 and 26 of the textbook for a complete chart of spellings of the sounds. Each of these sounds is written using a combination of character with the [i] vowel (e.g., き, し, ち, etc.) and ゃ, ゅ, or ょ. Compare the followings: Large [ya]: や Small [ya]: ゃ Example: [tookyoo] Compare to: [tookiyoo] とうきょう とうきよう [shabushabu] しゃぶしゃぶ [siyabusiyabu] しやぶしやぶ 9 5. Double Consonants See #4 on p. 26 of the textbook for more information on spelling double consonunts. A double consonant is written using っ (a small size of つ). Example: [kekkon] Compare to: [ketsukon] けっこん けつこん [yatto] [yatsuto] やっと やつと Be Careful!
When being converted, a double “n” (e.g., sannensee) in Roma‐ji is always written with ん+ a hiragana with a consonant of “n” (i.e. な, に, ぬ, ね, or の), not っ+ a hiragana with a consonant of “n”. To make it clear which sound is written, a “ ’ (apostrophe) is sometimes inserted between the two “n”. e.g., sannensee/san’nensee 〇さんねんせい [n+ne] ×さっねんせい 6. Pronouncing and Writing Special Characters: っ, ゃ, ゅ, and ょ The special sounds (i.e. double consonants and combination sounds) require special characters (i.e. っ, ゃ, ゅ, and ょ) to mark clearly that they are not the regular sounds, and therefore, they are never pronounced are [tsu], [ya], [yu], and [yo] respectively. When you write them, make sure that their sizes are noticeably smaller than the regular size characters. See the examples as follows: きゃ
Compare to (i.e. や, ゆ, and よ in their normal size): き や き ゆ き よ き つて
7. Print vs. Handwriting There are a considerable number of variations among the shapes of Hiragana in fonts for printing. Compare the followings as an example: e.g., the character, ら [ra] Mincho font Gothic font Kyokasho‐tai font “hand‐written” font ら
ら hand‐written Do not use the printed characters on textbooks/workbooks as a model for correct shapes of hand‐written Hiragana characters, as it often results that students remember the shape of a certain character inaccurately as a hand‐written character. 10 Here are some examples of mistakes in hand writing as a result of having used the character in Mincho font as a reference. Roma‐ji In Mincho font o お
ね れ わ
u ne, re, wa fu ra ri Common Mistake Correct shape お
う ね れ わ ふ/ふ/ふ ら り
8. Common Mistakes in Hiragana Writing Use this chart to learn what are considered to be incorrect shapes on each character. Hiragana Common Mistakes あ い Common Mistakes し す う え お
か き/き く け こ さ/さ Hiragana せ
つ と な ぬ ね の ん 11 は ふ
へ ほ ま ら り る れ め よ み む も や ゆ わ を 9. Hiragana Chart & Models of Hand‐written Characters Refer to the chart below to learn what hand‐written characters should look like. Basic Syllables (”gyoo” means “row”) * Used only in verb conjugations. [a] [i]
[o] あ‐gyoo: あ
い う
え お
か‐gyoo か き/き く け こ さ‐gyoo さ/さ し す せ
そ/そ た‐gyoo た な は ま や ら
ち に ひ み り
(い)* つ ぬ ふ/ふ/ふ
ゆ る (う)* て ね へ め れ
(え)* と の ほ も よ ろ を ん な‐gyoo は‐gyoo ま‐gyoo や‐gyoo ら‐gyoo わ‐gyoo 
12 Syllables with Diacritic Symbols [a] [i]
が‐gyoo ざ‐gyoo だ‐gyoo ば‐gyoo ぱ‐gyoo が ざ/ざ だ ば ぱ [u]
ぐ ぎ/ぎ じ ず ぢ づ び ぶ/ぶ/ぶ
ぴ ぷ/ぷ/ぷ
[o]  げ ぜ
で べ ぺ ご ぞ/ぞ ど ぼ ぽ Combination Sounds [ya] [ku] [yo]
きゃ/きゃ きゅ/きゅ きょ/きょ
[Shi]+ しゃ しゅ しょ [Chi]+ ちゃ ちゅ ちょ [Ni]+ にゃ にゅ にょ [Hi]+ ひゃ ひゅ ひょ [Mi]‐ みゃ みゅ みょ [Ri]+ りゃ りゅ りょ [Ki]+ Gi+ Ji+ Bi+ Pi+ [ya]
[ku] [yo]
ぎゃ/ぎゃ ぎゅ/ぎゅ ぎょ/ぎょ
じゃ じゅ じょ びゃ びゅ びょ ぴゃ ぴゅ ぴょ