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Pubbl. n. 453
A. Tintori, G. Muecio & S. Nardon
The Triassic fossil fishes localities
in Italy
A . T I N T O R I T .G . M U S C I O . & S . N A R D O N D
Srltig-JDL\.1'.d*r 'ir' ",1"1\'
ro. Ncl prescnte livoro vensÒno raccolti i piú recenìi daÌi $ntis.anci relativi alle principali
lo.alnó aosilifere a vctcbrati del Triasico Medio c Superiorè in ltalia. Pef alcùnè di c$c, coîosciúte g'à
da luDso lenpó, si ftat. di una púntualizzazionc nccesaria, in qudúo sPeso vengono utilizzfi dati non
piu aÌÌurlirpèr le àltrc localìtì invece, di pi'ì.ecenre scoPeù, sìè cèrcaro di da!c un completo supporró
sratiúraLco àllc drtazioni solitamcnte cìhtè nei lavori sreftrnentc palconrolosici re località pr*e in
c" ni'o îler'ore t'"'b
Ld'nho , Pclcdo Lld'nhÒ
".., s *' o Mr'S c,o'glo Ani'.o
V a D ' e o î e N o r i o h G o ' ' ì P T a ì p iB F ' i ' n e
d.l l-'"r Grnrol"rtóre
(Norico), Prealpì BeÌsamasche (Noricoj c i'r6ne cilaoni valle Pbna (NoricÒJ Nella naesior paitc dei'5i
G .**
d. paÍe desli sciivcnti oditrlt.i Enii, co! lc rpPosite conccsionidelle reliti
";-ili *-i
vc Soprintcndenze Archcologiche.
dith r'_ r'r"sìrPhnJl DoJ'ron Òl t!L ndî f"srl Vrl.bar^
f\F pdpcr i d.Ing
lD Jl
locaftìès as well as to fccently dúcovcred ones Bcsano Mt S. Giorgió (Anisian hdìni:n), P€rledo (Lr'
dinian-? Lowef Crrnian), tuibl (Lower Carnian), Ca del Fne (rower Camiai), Preonc Vallev (Lwcr
Noriar), Brescu rnd Bcrsamo PiealPr (Norian) lnd Gìffoni Valle Pirm (Nofi.n) are the invcsiFrcd
locàliries- Field worksare *ill in prosress in sevdal sitcs, mlinly bv !he àuthois-
In the last few years severalne* uertebratebearingbeds have been dis
coveredin the SouthernAlps (Fig 1) The age of most of rhem is Triassicand
At the sametime new sPecimers
tìiey are very rich in well preservcdspecimens.
have been collected in a few already known localities, often forgotten since the
position of thesesitesis now better established
last century. The stratigraphical
and wc found
PÒintout the availabledata for all of them
di sciènze delb Tcfta dcll'Universnàdesli Studi di Milano' via M'ngias'lÌi 34'
o MùsèÒFriùlànodi StÒriaNalurde,vì: CÌazzso 1,33100 Udine
D MuscoP.leontologico"1, Rocc.",via S. Ambrogio,34074Monfalcone
'fhanks Íc due À A Nico.a, P casati, F.
Jadoúi and M. caebni for usetul disc!$ions M
Caetanicritically read rhè nduscripi. This paperha. financialsúpP.d bv. M P Ì 402s'ant (Tria$ico
Alli Mcridionalìe Medilcraneo)tÒ C, RossiRonchclti
A. Ttubn, C. Mus.io tì S. Nd..lÒn
Middlef riassic
Besanol\IteS.Giorsio(Fig. 2 1c).
ln the Middle TriassicLiesonc of the most famousIralianvertebratelevels,
thc Bcsano Mte S. Giorgìo at rhe ltaly Switzerlandboundary near Varcse
Here diffcrcnt groups of invcrtebrares indicate a very Prccisc stratigraPhic
(ex T'.n?ifer
posjtion. Ammonites (Rieber, 1973) belong to the ParaÈell'rertirr
pollnorphrc) and (Cerdftfer' rcitzi zaies i.e at the Anisian/L.ìdinianbound
Daonella, are very corìlrrÌon(Rieber'
ary. ol'al'i,. cspeciallywith thc genLts
1968, 19ó9) in the upperpartofrlìc ScisrilttioÌitici di Besano(Grenzbitumen
'onc of d,e Swiss authors) and suggesra lowermostLadinianagetoo. The age
of this Lcvelwill be evcn furrher defined by co"od"n*, which are now under
Fisles frorn Bcsano Mte S. Giorgio havenot been much studiedrorly De
Alcss:rndri(1910) and Brough (t939) gave large accounts of this fish fauna.
Sincc reptiles were nrore arrractiveseueralpaperswere publishcd.rnainly by
l-de\ map. o the fo*il ferous ocli
Swissauthors.The most imPortant collectionis now storedin Zùrich (Palàon
rologischeslnsrirut und Museum der Universitàt).Fishcsdescribedby Brough
are at the ro"don British Museum (N H.), while in the Milano MuseoCivico di
Storia Naturalecollection there is only recenrly coLlectedmaterial Thc speci'
mens describedby De Alessandrihave been mostly descrovedduring the Last
War and only few of them are housedln Roma at the ServizioGeologicoIta
P e , L e d(oF i g . 2 3 m ) .
sonl.i"hot y"ung". than Besano Mte S Giorgio is Perledo, along theWesternslope oÍ rh. é.ign, Mountain, Eascof rhe Como Lake' A number of
fossil ue.tcÉrates *"r. ""ll..r.d frora ùis locality mainlv in the last centurv
and at thc beginnjng of dre present one. Recendy a few stratigraphical data
they show thar the ageof rhe
were achie"edby university ofMilano geologists;
PerhaPsCarnian in irs ÙP
Calcare di Perledo. yielding
, 1982) So far conodon*
pernosr parr 1cacti"i, peis. comm.;Brusca
(Kozur & Vegh)
ico"dolella trdmmeri Kozùî nà MetapoL\gnans ,rrrgar;cas
(Nicora, pers. comrn.)), which are rhe only fossilsproviding good-biostrat
data. confirm a Ladinian age at leàsr for the lower parc of rhe unit'
Fossil verrebratesnere found in rhe surroundingof the Pcrledo vilìage
during quarry work before rhe Last War, Irainly in the upper part of.the Crì
other than casuallvSince
are now coLlected
c,rredi Éerledo.No more specimens
di Storja Nrturale, was
the largest
scarceand scatteredin
destroyedduring the Last War, available
severalMuseur:rs(Tintori, in press).The nost comprehensivcpnPerabout the
perledo fishesis by De Alessandrì(1910J while Peyer (t934) dealr with the
A - p . ( ' e n rp r e m i r a r yf r e d q o r k r . r ' n g , J r : e d o n b y o n e o f u ' A T '
. " . a . ' ' , " a " ' . . ' . e " t p ; e - L r d : n in I c L e ' e ' ' " r ' i ' , r e " : s o f r o n l v f e *
very bad preservedfossìlshavebeen collected
B a r b l( F i g . 2 5 u ) .
Co'.-cernirg the UpPer Triassic, around the Raibl mines (SE of Tarvisìo,
l u l i a n A p r d r ' l g r e y t o b l , . k . s o m c r i m e bs ' r u r n i n o u sl i m e s t o n eo' u t c t o p
i h c v , r e ' h r n b e d d " da n d l e a ' c r i b < dr o r h e l o ' e r p a ' r o f ' h e R " i b l C r o r - t p '
rhc io called <Scisti tttiolitici di Raibl) or berter the Calcaredi Predil {Selli,
1 9 6 2 ì A s s e r e t o e t a 1 . , 1 9 6 8 ; B t ù s c à e, 1
t a9l8 2 ) l n t h i su n j t ,w h i c h w a sd e p o s i t
ed in a lagoonalenvironmentwith anoxic bottom conditioDs,a verreb'atefauna
w.s fou"à maìnly during rhe last century. Few authors were interestedin thc
Raibl fishes:,-ó"g th.À Bronn (1858) and Kner (1866). Recentlvonlv Grif
A. Tinbd, C. Mrs.b & S. N.ÀÒn
ili, t l i i
' , i
i l lq
t ìljl l l
fith (19591 added sone rcmrks on few specimensol Sdurichthjs strialatus
(Bronn), lrom the Brl.ish Mùseurn(N.H.) collectlon.Sornenew spccimenshave
now bcen collected; mrlnÌy fishes. but also crustaceans
and plant remanrs:
among fìshes Saurichthys znd,Pholidopleurus are the most common. For some
fossiliferousbcds the organiccarboncontanredin rhe rock (avcrage0.s2%) was
analyzed.Its orìgìn appearsro bc both marine and continental;an average60%
of the organic carbon coming fron continentalsourcessùggests
the presence
of a closeterresrrialenvironmenr.
In rhis site field work is progrcssingand some of the collectedmaterjalis
alteady beìng studied at the Palcontological Museum (La Rocca, in Monfalcone (corizia). The nosr parr of the material colle*ed in the last century lies ar
the GeoìogischeBundesarst:rltnr Wicn, being at rhe time Raiblunder Austrian
l rate(Fig.2 1 e).
of Camianageis .rlsothe new locality nearCa' del lrare (Viggiú Varcsc),
not f.rr from Besrno. The fosslliferousourcrop is vefy closeto the old small
quarry from which a few fisheswere collcctedat the beginningof thc ccntury
(Rcpossi,1909r De Alcssandfi,1910). Pcopleliving in the area rcnember the
placc of rhe quarry, insidethe Besarocommunalboundary,wherc rhcy uscdto
dig out stones,nr,rLnlyto bLrildùDdergroundsheltcrsfor rhe Arrny which arc
stìll prrtly vìsibìe.De Alessandri(1910) describedthc srratigraphicaì
of this fish level,in ordcr to distinguisLit from thc main BesaDo,MreS.Cior
gio oDe (bortom p. 25: "The first cited localiries(Monte N.rveQuarry. Monrc
Grunelìo Quarry and TrefontaneQuarry) rre in the s.rmelevel at rhc base of
rhe unit... whilc Ca del Frate Ìies in thc upperrrostparr ofthe unit. vcry close
ro the boundarybetweenthe <blackshalerand the colouredmarls").
On the base of these data, wc can say th.rr our new locality cerainly
beìongsro thc srne fish level,no more úan 200 rn far in distancefrom the old
Schenaric strrrisraplical profìlesshowirg rhe posìtion of rle fossiliferouslocalitics.
1 ) B e s a n oM . S . c i o r s i o a n d c a ' d e l F r . r e { a f t e r S r i c c a 1
, 9 8 3 .n o d i f i e d ) . 2 1 B e È
s a m o a n d B r e s c i aP f c r l p s .3 l P e r l e d o( a f r e ; c a e r a i i & N i c o m . p ù s . c o m m . l . 4 )
P , e 1 e V " l l e ) 1 r , e ' P . . " . t 0 2 . - n d M " r r \ e t j i & p : / / r i , 9 - 4 , b o r t ,n o d . . i e d
. P r i h . , f e 8 , , . . d " . r ' . . t a 8 2 , . i r p t i , . e d f - , : t : . e r o ut "" L 4 s . " ,D u . o r r i o
r ' , e . o D o o m i , d eS
l J \ " r ^ ' c . ! c ! i i I r i o l . , : , i d :B e . J n oc r c n /
b i , J m e n , ^ , cd: ( J l . ' , e J M c ' i d e er , r l . J , ed i À / c ' ; d eK " l \ , . n i e G v ^ n , . 1 F o ,
r " / i Ò n e J : C , , n r ' d oC
: M r ' n c d p l p r / / e l L h D o l o m Lp , i n .p r r H " u p . o o t . n i t j
i ) t h i n b e d d e db l . c k d o l o s t o n a i n s i d et h e D o l o m i a p r i n c i o a l eN o r t h ; f R r e s . i a j
r . L " r e d : Z o r z i r o l, , A , s i t i r io i R i v Jd r S o t , o i D " t o m ; d e l lA t o i a , m
r C-lca,e
di-ciedo:r .Jl,",.di Lin,:. Mc'rllite,o
B e , r " n o c o .p F o r m r : " o ndei C o r r ^ r
, l t " r l i J n ! i p . : . . . r n , J r L 1 E ! )d o l o "o n " . , . D o l o m i "à i . o - n r : r rD o l o m i " . "
. j . . n " : u )( , ì c . e d e l P r e d i l : \ r - " . . / r n n e , 1R
i : o d p lL . u o : s c r " " r e d i R i o . o n
z e n ix l F o r t u a z i o nd€i T o r .
A. lintori, C. Mts.iÒ & S. Nd
quarry, in the upper part of the Kalkschiefcrzonc.
The latter unit (thc <b1ack
shale>of De Alessandri)is che uppermostp*t of the Calcaredi Merideand is
usuaìÌyagedas Middle Carnian(Allasinaz,1968) by neans ofirs stratigraphìcal
position.Thc Marne dcl PizzeÌla(the <colouredmarls>of De Alessandri)follow
upwardsand thcy arc rcLatedto thc cnd of the Mcsorriassic
Cycle in thc South
ern Alps (Allasinà2,1968; Casati& Gaetani,1979) whoseageis consideredUp
per Carnian.So far no fossil of stratigraphicalinteresthas been found in the
so rh)t tle age cànnor be direcdy stated.Howeverthe lower
member of rhe calcare di Meride contains Protrachyceras cl arclalaas (trlojsl
sovics)among orher fossils (Scnn, 192,+)in irs lowernost part ard Cclrircs
b,r.ni (Mojsisovics)ail Lecdnitesglalcas (Mojsjsovics)(Ajr.rghi,1912) in irs
upper part. slowing an agecìoseto the LadinìaniCarnianboundary.Therefore,
even if nìai,rly on the base of litostratigraplicaiand indirect paleontological
data, the age of these fossil fìsh m.ry be consideredto be Middle Carnianor,
following the proposaLfor a new Triassictirne scale(Visscher.1983) roward
rhe rop ofthe Julian (Lowcr C.ìrnian).
As already pointcd out, this site was known, but usually jts fossilswcre
idenrjfìed as comìng from the Bcsano Mte S. ciorgìo lcvcl (Brough. 19391
Patrerson,I981). Yer the marrix ìn the two localìtieslooks very differcnt, rhc
Besanoone being bìack bituminous shalesor dark grey laminaceddolostones,
with bìack or partiaììypiririzaredfossils,and the Ca' del Frate one beingclearer,
white or grey. light brown or seìdomblack. Fossilsfrom Ca' dcl Frate are al
ways brown, even on black surfacesand pyrire ìs usually absent. Some old
collections'specinens,which are Ì.rbeÌledas from Vìggiúrather than from Besa'
no, are likely from tÈis outcrop rather rhan from the old Ca'del Frare quarry.
poÌoi (Bellotri,1857)
A papcr deaLingwirh the most cornmon lish,t+ohalecìtes
is now in prcparationby one of us (A.T.). other gerera such as senio,?otur,
Pe eiclus nA Peltopleurusare well representedin the material till now col
lected.A singlespecimcnof a new Lcgnorotrisspecies,-L.obrusashasbecn also
described(Tintori & Renesto,1983).
A few o1dspecìmens
are at cheMuseumof the ServìzioGeologicoltaliano
in Roma and some othersbelong ro the Brirish Museum (N.H.) collection.All
the new materialis at the lnduno Olona MuseoCivico di ScienzeNarurali.
The Norianlocalitìes.
The Norian represenisrhe Triassicrìchest sragein fossil fishesin Ìtaly,
while reptilesare noc so common. Severallocalitiesare spreadin the Southern
Caìclcous Alps: rheir age mngesabout from the bascto rhe top ofrhe Norian
stagc.Furthcrnore .rn old sireis knowr cvcn in cheSouthcrnAppcnnines,near
The facies of all rhc Norian localiriesis lagoonaland coeval with the
carbonate pìarform of the Dolomi.r Principale(Hauptdolomir).whose age is
thought ro be uppermostCarniàn Norian. Thc Dolomìa Pr;ncipalecarbonate
platforrr was very wide and often ìts prcscnt thicknessìs more than 1.000 ùr.
Lagoonswith anoxic borrorl conditions took pìacc at diffcrent rncs insidc
this platform ar least ir rhe SouthernAlps. Owing ro their stratigraphìcal
belowl. we can state that thc PrconeVa11eysiresare older than rhc
carza Vaì1eyone while BergamoPrerlpsand Giffoni fish bedsare youngerthan
both the others.Probìemsìn daring rhe Norian Rhaetianstagesin the Soutlr
ern Alps cxisr .rLsofor somc of the old scarteredfossilvertebratefoundings,
especiallyin Lombardy. At the presentwe prefer ro use the Rh.erìan wirh l
somewhatreduccd ne.ìning (Visschcr,1983) so drat m"st of the <Rhaetian,
specimensof the AA. rn.rybe considcrcdto be Norian (BoDi.1937).
P r e o nvea l e y ( F i g .2 4 s ) .
Bcrwcer Tolmezzo .ìnd Ampczzo (Udine). Soùtb of the TagliaÌìento
River. there are rocks whcre only recently Triassicfossilvcrrcbrrrcshavcbeen
found. Thc outcrops from which sever:rlfislcs and a few reptileshave been
collected are mainly ol ìirnited ertension: furthcrmore specìrrensare only
scatteredin dìfferent levels.so that exploiting in scvcralPreoneValley smrll
outcrops hrve often got scarceresults.Thc rnit yiclding thc fossilshas not a
forrraì rame yet, but ir is usually known as Dolomi.ì di Foini (Mamavclli&
Rìzzìni, I 974j, coevalwith the lower parr of the Dolomìr Principalc.The strat:,
consist on the whole of L.rminatcdbituminous dolostones;colour rangesfrom
1,eÌìow brown to dark grey .rnd bed chicknessvariesfrorn 3 to 30 cm. Fossils
other than vcrtebratesare very uncommon owing to the palcoccoÌogicaÌ
tions in the hgoons (anoxìcbortom) and to thc strongdiageneticevents.So far
only a reptìle,with terresrrialbehaviour,Megalaaco.rawus
preonensis\C zawra, Muscio & wìld, 198'i) has been dcscribed,while sorre fishes(coehcharts
^nd Thordcopfcrus)are at presentundcr study. The presenceof a terresrrial
vertebrateis important, allowing a bette. pale"ge"graphicalreconsrruction:
smalÌ isÌands rised from the carbonate platforrn of drc Dolomia Prircìpale
which surroundedthe lagoonswherethc Dolomìr dì Forni deposìted.
\Fi,g.2 2;).
The Norian vcrtebratefaunasfrom the BresciaPreaÌps;rre
litrle known. A
few localitieshave been randonly cxploited, most of them being co-p.rrable
in age and contents ro the BergamoPreaÌpssiresbelow descrìbed.Fishesare
lound in rhe VestinoValley (zambelli, I 981b) aDd in the carza Valley (Tinrori
& Lualdi, in prep.). The latter localiry is very intercsting,being in thc middle
part of the Dolomia PrirrcipaÌe,
that's ro say in an intermediatestratigraphical
positlon berween the Preone Valley localjty and all the odrers.Actualìy rhe
Garza Va11eyfauna is quire different from the yourger ones (Bergamo Prealpt
A.'l'iatÒti, C. Muscia Ù S. Nat.lÒfl
and severalnew
havìngonly few common general.Iìremboclus.
raxa which look morc prirritive. Unforrunatcly rhis marerialis rather poorly
prcservedand specimensàre not nùmerous.Furthermoremost ofthe new spe
ù.ìking accura!crcstoratiorl
cies are reprcscnredonly by one or two specimens,
nearly ìmposslblc.
Prealps(Fig. 2 2 j. k).
Certaù1y thc nìost où.standingnew localitiesfor TriassicverÈbratesopen
in borh dre Calcrre di zorzino .rnd the Argilliti di Riva di Solto, ln thc Prealps
sewral hundredsof
North of Bcrgamo.Since the beginningof rhe scventies,
specimenshavc been coilectcdby one ofus 1a.r. for the Universityof Milano)
and by the Bcrgamo Museo Civico di ScienzeNaturaLi(Caffi' Four major
localitìeshave been cxploited, lying more or less ìn the same stfarigraphical
posirion.Nothing can be saidabout their reìatìveagcbecauseit is irrpossibleto
,r"t", .u.n l"c.lly, -hether rhe Dolomia Prlncipaleand/or jts anoxic facies
(rhe Caìcaredi Zorzino) coùre to the end everywhereat the samc time, beìng
then covcredby tìre Argilliti dj Rivr di Soko. Adually Jadoul (in PreP) shows
that thc threc unirs are at lcàstparrly tinre equivalenl
Each of the four siteshas irs own faun.rlpeculiarity.Perlìapsbecauseof
somewhatdiffcrenr environmenul conditions.rhe {ìrst fossilfishesin rhe area
are from thc ccnc quarry (Scrio VaÌley), which was dug in the upPer Part of
rhe Calcaredt zorzino. A landslideerposcd .r wide surfaccwhich provcdto be
a 6-7 cn thick lamùated bed, very rìch Ln fossìls The prese arion ìs reà11y
superb,:llowing a very fiDe prcparatio,r.rnd dcscription.Flying reptiìes(wiÌd,
i978) and a large rmount ol t'holidophorirlae(zambellì, 1975, 1978, 1981a)
are the best known fossils from rhis sire. l,argc predators (Saariclrlrys and alr
well às I'rcldoddLrlids,a selachi.rnknown only by
g.r;d) are qùitc
its tooth-rows (Tinrori, 1980). Nectobe,rthonicfìs|es,such as pycnodonrsand
semionotidsate scarcelyrepresentedas wcll as benthonic invertebraresThe
latter are us,a11yconsideredt" be.rllochtl'onousin the fish bearingbeds,eìther
moved from the carbonateplatforn, to the ìagoonsanoxic bottom during
srorm, or srnk frorn floating woods. Thcn tLe Position of the Ccnc siceirsjde
r l ' , r l , g o o n m L , ' r- . ' c b c c n r r ' I ' J r ' - h e e d g eu r I n e ' " r b o r r , p l " r f o r m .w h ' h
w . s - i . l , r n b , : n r h - . . i f, r u I r l r ( c r n o r u , . s . . " r , l , , e . h r ro d c , n , , .c r u . ( J ( e r n (' { o r
the larter seePinna,1974).
Two orhers localiries,BrernbillaV.rlley and Zogno Endenna,oPenat the
boundary betwcen the Calcaredi Zorzino and the Argilliri di Riva di Solto;
found there,they
of a relativclargeamount of benthonicinvertebrares
are thought to havebeen closerto a margin or to an oxìgcnicbortonr' Pycno
donts (Ìrrernúorlrs,cibbodon anéEonesodon)(Tintorl, I 981) and senìionotids
with grirding dentition (S.rrgo.lor,Datdta, Ddpediun (Tìntori, i983) as well
as Pdrdtepidohlsand Scr?ionofls) are ab"ndant. Legnouatus also is rather
common (Tintori & Renesro, 1983Jwirh Sdriri.Àtryr (Bcltan& TiDrori, 19801
TiDrori. rn prep.J as well as other genera idcntificd, but nor yet described
t,'t'horacopterus, tsirgeid, PholidapleMus, OloplLagus).Pholitlophorirlae are as
always the mosr common with severalspeciesdescribedon the material from
Cene. Among the reptìlesa couple of completc specimensof thc placodorr
l,sephodertna(Pinnr, in prep.)hasbeen found in Zogno afrer the descriprionof
a first fragrnentaryspccimen(PiDDa,1979). Othcr rcptjles.rreDftp.tnosdutus
(Plnna, 1980, 19a4), L den ,tsdu:r.ts
(Renesro,1984) and a fragmentofa very
l.rrgepterosaur(Padian.1981). Material frorr thc Brcnbilla Va11eyis usualìy
poorly preservedand ficld work was carrìed on only for a shorr time. Much
more interestingis Zogno where spc.imcnsare rather weìl presefvcdand the
e\posure for collecting is good. Thcrc the fossiliferouslevel is about 300 cm
rhick; rnarrix rangcsfron shaleto ìir'ìestone,
so thàt rhe possibiliryof preserva
rioD :nd prep.ìrariornay ìargelyvary (Fig. 3). More than 25 fish speciesand a
few reptileswere fouid in zogno and Brembilla Valley, but field work is srill
far from beìngovcr.
The last major locality, Ponte ciurino (llrragnaVa11ey),
is rhc only one
opening in the ArgiÌlìtì dj Riva di Solto (Fig. 2-2 kl, being somc ren meters
above thc boundary wjth the Dolomia principaìe{the C.Ìlcaredi ZolziDo is
lackingin that area).lts fauna consistsof nurneroussrnallîishes(PholidaphorLLs
{zanbeììi, 1980) url ?Pholídopleund and vefy few other taxa (SaaricÀrÀys,
Ddpediun, ?t hora.aptenls ,,Dd Pseudotlalatías).
Anrong invertebraresonly
are,rbundrnt (Arduiìri& Brasca,1984) and a few insectshavcalso
been collectcd.The shaly rnarrir makcs spccimensprepararìonand subsequeDl
preservationdifficult; nevenLeÌessa Largcnunber ofthem is now.ìr rhc Bcrgamo MuscoCivico di ScìenzeNaturali <Caffì>,
As for rhe Prconc Va11ey,
more or lcsswidc carbonaticislands,with fresh
water rescrvoirs,existed during rhc depositionof both the Calcaredi Zorzino
and rhe lowermost part of the Argilliti di Riva di Solto. Ìnfact tcrrestrialanimals (insecrsfrom Ponrc ciurino, flyìng rcptiles frorn Cene and Zogno and
orhcr reptiles fron Zogno) show that land was not far from theselocaliries.
G i f f o n i V a lPl ei a n a( F i g .1 - 1 1 ) .
Only onc Triassicverrebratesireis krrowrroutsìdethe Alps: it liesnear Sa
lerno, closero the ciffoni Valle PianavilÌagc.This locality was cxplorredin the
last century and yielded a few fishes dcscrlbedmainìy by Cosra (1853-60,
1862) and Bassani(1892, 1895). The fish bcaring beds are now complerely
desnoyed by quarry works (Scorziello,Universnyof Napoli, pers.com.). All
the ciffoni material publishedby thc kalian aurhorsis in the MuseoPaleonro
logico of the Universityof Napoli. Thc age of the ciffoni fìshesis comparabÌe
rvith that of the Bergamoor BresciaPrealpsfaunas,rhe brruninous bedsbcing
included in the middle-upper part of the Dolornia Principale(Sgrosso,
A. Tihtori, C. Mus.iÒ & S. NardÒn
OrEdic \4arter (0-, %)
0 ó
Fis. 3 - The zosno Endenna fo$iliferous sequenceshowing the tlree main ffsh levelsin
which nost ofthe taxa are widesprerd.only Brembotus aoàPseudÒdalatias
w ' ! e b , a , e .a n d r h e e . h i n o d e , o , , h l e , ' e d r ,e d r a n g e . " * . ' e d i n , h e I ì s u r e .
L i r \ o l o g i , . l c h a r a c t e '"s" w e l l " s o r g a n i cc a r b o nc o n r e n ,. r e : k o s h o w n .
A i r a s h ic . ( 1 9 1 2 ) Ì m o l l u s . h id e s l i s c i s t ib i t u m i n o s dl i B e s a n oi n L o m b a r d i a . , , l r d
5o.. Ir.
S . . N d r . .v . 5 1 , p p . 1 3 0 , 4 p l . , 1 f i g . ,M i L n o .
A Ì ì a s i n aA
z . ( 1 9 6 8 ) I l T r i a si n L o m b a i d i a( S r u d ig e o l o g i cci p a l e o n r o ì o s i c iX) .X I V . I l c a r
n i c o n e l l aL o m b a f d i ao c c i d e n t a l cR. n , . h . P a l e Ò n rS r t u t . , ! . 7 4 , n 4 , p p . 1 0 0 7 1 0 5 ó ,
11 fig., Milano.
Arduini P. & Brasci A. 11984) ,4rlopi.a/trj nuovo s.nerc delL clàss€Thyllcocephala.lÍi
S o . . l r . S c N d r . , v .1 2 5 , n . l 2 , p p . 8 7 9 3 . 2 p l . . r f i g . M
, ilano.
Asereto R., Desió A., Di Colb.úaldo D. & Paseri L.D. (1968) Noré illusrrarivedella Carra
c e o l o g i c ad ' l t a l i ar e l a t i v aa l F o s l l o1 4 aT a . v n i o .v . d ì 7 0 p p . . 1 2 f ì s . .R o m a .
BassaniF. (1892) - Sui fossili e sull'etàdesli scistibituninosi di Monte Pcrtine pressociffoni
ValLePianain Provinciadi S.lerno (Dolomia Principalc).Mzn. So.. lt. S.. d.i xr, s. 3,
v. 9, n. 3, pp. I -27, Napoii.
B a s s a nFì . ( 1 8 9 5 ) - L a i t t i o f a ù n ad e l l a D o l o m i aP r i n c i p a l ed i c l f f o n i ( p r o v . d i S a l e f n o )
P à l a e ot . I t . , r . 1 . p p . 1 6 9 - 2 1 0 , 7 p l . , P i s a .
B c l t a . L . & T i n t o r i A . ( 1 9 8 0 ) T h e s e r u s s d ù r i . À r À ] i( P i s c s ,A d i D o p r e r y s i i )d u r i n gt h e
Gondwanà Period- Ptoc. Fifth Int. GÒndwahaSjùp., pp. 53 59,2 ffs., Rotrerdlm.
B o n i A . ( 1 9 3 7 )- V e r t e b r a tri e t i c ii t a l i a n i t. t e f i . R A c c . N ú . L i n e í , s . 6 , r . 6 , n . 1 0 , p p . 5 2 1
7 1 9 ,6 p l . , 1 1 f i s . , 7 ! a b . ,R o m a .
Rronn H.G. 11858) Beit.:ise zur t.iasischenFàúnaund Flora der bitùninosen Schiefervon
r \ r i b l . N . l b . M i n . C e o l .p a l à o h t .y, . 1 , p p . | 3 2 , 5 p l . , S Ì ! r t s a r t .
Brougfi l. (1939) - The T.iasic Fishesof Besàno,Lonba.dy. 117 + viii pp., ? pl., 4ó fìs.,
B r i t i s hM u s € ú m( N . H . ) E d . , L o n d o n .
Bruscac., GaetaniM., Jadoul F. & Viel c. (1982) PaleogÈoFafìaladino carnicae metallo
g e n e sdi e l S ù d à l p i r oM
. e , t . S o c .G e o l .t t . , i . 2 2 , p p . 6 5 8 2 , 5 f ì s . , R o m a .
c a l z a v a r aM . , M ù s c i oc . & w i l d R . ( 1 9 8 1 ) M e g a l d , c o s d , a p
r / e o r e " r i r n . s . , n . s p . ,r n e w
Reptile from the Norian of Friuli, rtaly. Gonania Atti MuseÒFtsl S N., v. 2, pp. 49
6.1,5 lig., Udine.
Qsati P. & GaetaniM- (1979) The Triassicin LÒúbardy. tr: R. Assereroand c. Pìsafìeld
symposiumon Triasic St.atigraphyin Sourhern Alfs, FíeA Cu e Baoh, 73 pp.,15
fìg., Milano.
c o s t ao . G . ( 1 8 5 3 - 1 8 6 0 )- l t t i o l o s i èf o s s ì l en a l i a n av. i i + 7 7 p p . , 5 p l . , N a p o l i .
CostaO. G. (1862) srùdii sop.ai tereni ad itrioliti del Regnodì Napoli. Arti R. Accad. Sc.,
44 pp.,7 pl.. Napoli.
De AlessandG
r i . ( 1 9 1 0 )- S t u d i is u ip e s c ir i a s s i c id e l l aL o m b a r d i aù. c n S o . . l r . S . . N d r . ,v .
3 , n . 1 , p p . I 1 4 5 ,9 p l . , M i l a n o .
Griffith J. (1959) - In the anarony of two saurichthyidfìsles, su,ri.Àr}l,i srrt,latur (Bro.nl
a n à S d u t i c h t h Ì sc , t í o t u i( B e l l o t t i ) P
. r o . . z o o L S o c .L o k d . , \ . 1 3 2 , a . 1 , p p . 5 8 7 6 0 6 ,
2 p l . , 7 f i g . ,L o n d o n .
Kner R. (1866) - Die Fiscle der biruninosen Schiefervon Raibl in K:irnthen.sir?. ,{l 'lts.
t l i e n , s .l , y . 5 3 , p p . 1 5 2 1 9 7 . 6p l . ,W i e n .
Mattavelli L. & Rizzini A. (1974) Facieseuriniche nelie dolomie noriche dell'Ampezzano
ludjne): Petrografiae Sedinentologia.,,ìir lt- Pdlcont. Stnt., Mem. 14, pp. 111 138.
4 pl., 4 fìg., Milano.
Padì.. K. (19811 Note of a new specinen of pre.osaur(Reptilia, Prerosaú.ia)fron rh€
N o r i a n ( U p p e rT n a s s i cóJ f E n d e n r a ,I t a l y .R i , . M , s . c i r . S c N d t .c d f f i , y . 2 , p p . r 1 9
1 2 7 . 2 f ì g . .B e r g a h o .
A. TintÒri,C. Muscio & S Nadon
record of Teleost {ìshes aall
Patt€rsonc. (1981) - Asasiz. Darwin, Huxlev and the fossil
8,. M";. N,t. Hist (Ce"l),\'35,n.3'pp 213 224'
' r e ' o u n dCe ' S Jr r i e r
P e \ e ' B . l q t i l - D i e r , i a s l J ù nd, e "T e ' i n e r
a BerS'mo MPl
i o s r " . e id " l l . l " ù n " r r i a $ '
Pinn, C. Is !,
S ./,.5.^dr',v 2Ì n l.PP l 34
d unsiov"ne'..::i;]lt
c,o?s rr.',n:o
(Beisamo) '4rlt sr
del Norico
t ol.,r fis, Milrno.
-' t""",-,a" "; :l fì ì; ;* ;i ;p. ;; "; '; f; n; "eol .t a
i l ui an) . / t ; ; s o'cn.er 'usí.u^tht a
t .tvt i"2n1, u, nv 3o ,sPePn 1e 8, e1e n u o \ " P e c i " d r h p r o a u r o
;Ii i:'il;:i,:1""",,
co'ni d: So'to/Ca-niro
Pi," C. 1972, - Ge loqLdei noì iJ Norddi
C , j . , . . 2 , v . l l . P P _ 4 J ò b R .l Ì P l l 0 f i E B o l o S n - '
den_"re L'rz
R e n " .so r a 8 4 A r e w e p : d o - u* t : l l : , l : : l ' " : ) ; ' 1 " , 1 ' ; Ì : l ' : , ? : ' í : ì :
Prealps. (P.elidinary note) Ri' Ir' Pdi
'1t'r'soc r' sc Nd''v''18'
"" ,cistibituninosidi Eesanoin
, ilano.
n . 1 , p p 1 - 3 4 , 1 P 1 .M
::Tjj; 3''il:Íí ql:*:'l':;,':;:;:;:)Ll::;1:
p p . 3 3 6 l , 2 p l 7 2 f ì 9 . .S t u f t g a f t '
! 2,
c.Ji'"tirúnenzone dcr mitderen rrias des Monte su
' - - " - c H.
r . . ìió;;)
62'nz'PP 657 683'4Pl'7fìg''
i i < i r * , . , S c h w c i z ) .' l c e o l H e h ' u
n. in der
(Kanton ressin' Schweiz)
/ . 1 . c p . / H . / ù . . v . b 6 . " .t . P o . ò ò 7 6 8 À 8 i r g B " r l
o ! c r d e n t t r "c r t 4 u ' o r ' ' s 1 '
S c l l iR . Ì q b 2 . S h e n . g " ^ r o g r co e l l " A l p i c r ' n ( h e e C i u l i '
,",, I
0". Arpen.údrund""
i ,'"11";í.oj;
elrre.i .eì
s a l e r n oe A n a ì f ì ) 3 8 p p . R o m a '
185 197
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- ""'
Ti'iili,"".r". *-", ni?,do.rard,ias
19-30' 1pl '
'r"" fupp"/ r.r.*r. ) of Loúba'dv Ri; Ir' l'al'o'r' sr/dr'' 86'
3 fis . Milano
. Iwo new Pv(nodorr' Pr' esA 'úoP ervsi fron rhe upp"r.rtu*'c
t,",.'r ;: r;ti
n 4 Dp 95 82r''8Pl
o'Lomb.rdr N lrrll .8n /r'f"r''n' \r'dr " 8t lsso
2 fig , MiLano.
fton the Upp*
A. (1983) Hypsisoúatic Seflianotidae (Pisces'Actinoptervsii)
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T r i à s i c o f L o m b a r d y( N . I t a l y l . À t , . r t ' .? d l e o r i .S n a t . , \ . 8 9 ,n . 2 , p p . 2 0 9 - 2 2 2 , 7 p l . ,
2 fis.. Milano.
VisscherH. (1983) LG.C.P. Projecr n.4: a najo. achievemenrin Triassicresearch.Achallengeto the S.T.S.,,4làerttaha,v. 1, pp. 3 6, Urrecht.
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B e . g a m o ,I t a l i e n .B o l l . S o c .P d l z Ò n tt.t . , y . 1 7 , n . 2 , p p . 1 7 6 2 5 6 , 1 6 p 1 . , 4 7 f ì g . .
zambelli R. (1975) - Nore sui Pholidophorifomes. I
nlbetini gzn. n.
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n o v . s p . n o v . R i , . M r s - c i " . S c . N d t . C a f f i ,t . 2 , p p . 1 2 9 1 5 9 , 5 p l . , 4 f i s . ,B e r g a m o .
z.mbelli R. (1981b) Noré súi pholidopho.ifotues. v r pholidùhÒid;e àell'Jta valestino (Brescia,It.lie). Nar,/d BtesciMa, i. 17, pp.77 88,7 fis., B.escia.