Teaching Young Children in Multicultural Classrooms (2nd ed.) Chapter 1 Major Concepts of Diversity • • • • Multiculturalism Cultural Pluralism Ethnicity Cultural Groups Immigration Patterns of the United States • • • • • • • • 17th and 18th Centuries English, French, Germans, Native Americans, African American slaves, Scandinavians 19th Century Chinese, Mexicans, Irish, Japanese 20th Century Early part—Italians, Eastern Europeans, Jews, Greeks, Russians, Slavs Middle part—Cubans, Eastern Europeans from Communist Countries, Hispanics from Cuba, South and Central Americans Last part—Middle Eastern Arabs, Mexicans, Other Hispanics, People of the Caribbean, Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans, East Indians Major Diversity Groups • • • • • • • • • European-Americans Americans born in Europe and their descendents Non-European Americans African Americans Asian Americans Hispanic Americans Middle Eastern Americans Native Americans Pacific Islander Americans Diversity in the United States • By 2050: – One third of children will be Non-European Americans – Hispanics will be the largest minority in the United States (due to the highest birth rate) – White Americans will constitute less than half of the populations – 10 largest metro areas will have predominantly minority populations Chapter 2 Dimensions of Culture • • • • • • Perceiving Reality Interpreting Events Symbolizing Making Value Judgments Assigning Meaning Representing Reality Functions of Culture • To define behaviors, roles, rituals, and expectations • To interpret the tangible and the intangible • To offer stability in life • To influence interpretation of life • To give individuals identity Cultural Levels • Material Culture – Dress – Art – Utensils – Tools – Language • Non Material Culture – Ideas – Fears – Values – Beliefs – Emotions Cultural Frames of Reference • Values • Beliefs • Shared meanings and interpretations • Rules Elements of Cultural Identity • • • • • • • • • • Age Ethnic or national origin Family Religion Gender Language Geographical region Educational background Job or profession Socio-economic level Elements of Diversity • • • • • • • • Nationality Race/Ethnicity Religion Social Class Gender Language Exceptionality Age Elements of Ethnicity Defined by: Received through: • Religion • Birth • Ancestry • Family • Nationality • Religious Conversion Chapter 3 Functions of the Family • • • • • • • • • Basic Tasks Developmental Tasks Hazardous and Safety Tasks Economic Support Domestic/Health Care Recreation Socialization Affection Education/Vocational Support Family Models • Traditional Family Model • Intact Family (two-parent heterosexual couple) • Blended Family (step families, multiple-marriage heterosexual couples) Family Models • • • • • • (contd.) Non-Traditional Family Model Single Parent Grandparent Family Foster Family Sibling-Headed Family Gay and Lesbian Family Characteristics of Healthy Families • • • • • • • • Common Values Adaptability Spirituality Shared Goals Mutual support Sense of Joy Good Communication Family Pride Chapter 4 What is Development? • Development is a process of continuous physical, emotional, and intellectual changes that are experienced by all humans. • The process is holistic, dynamic, and transactional. • Culture influences the patterns of development. Characteristics of Positive Development • On-going positive and nurturing relationships • Safety in the environment and physical protection • Developmentally appropriate experiences relevant to the child’s needs • Reasonable expectations and predictable structure and routines • Stable and supportive community • Cultural continuity across home, school, and community Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practices (DCAP) • Concept that guides and defines ways to design and deliver teaching and learning experiences for all young children based on general and individual developmental characteristics. Major Elements of DCAP • Universal Development Patterns • Individual Development • Family, Social, and Cultural Experiences Factors that Contribute to Identity • • • • • • • • Heredity Prenatal Factors Family Environment Religion Race Language Ethnicity Culture Socialization A process through which individuals learn the accepted patterns of behaviors and interactions in the context of society to which they belong. Key Factors that Influence the Formation of an Identity • • • • • • • Environment -Family, Community Acculturation Social Class Historical Time Religious Beliefs Media Major Elements of Cultural Socialization • • • • • • • Parents or Guardians Family Members Community Environment Neighborhood Friends and Peers Teachers and School Staff Media Taxonomy of Pro-social Skills • Interacting with others: listening, being courteous, showing respect, asking for help following rules • Establishing relations with others: greeting others, participating, smiling, cooperating, sharing, accepting differences • Showing empathy towards others: showing concern for all, expressing feelings for others, taking action to help others, dealing with and accepting differences Chapter 5 Equity and Equality in Education • Educational Equity—establishes the same educational resources and opportunities for all children, regardless of their diverse characteristics. • Equality in Education—guarantees by law the same access to education regardless of race, color, religion and national origin. Individuals Who Contributed to Equality in Education • • • • • • Maria Montessori Chief Sarah Winnemucca Jane Addams Booker T. Washington Miles A. Cary Rafael Cordero Important Laws Regarding Equity in Education • Plessy vs. Fergusson (1896) • Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, KS (1954) • Civil Rights Act (1964) • Head Start (1965) • Education for All Handicapped Act (P.L. 94142, 1975) • Early Intervention Amendments (P.L 99-457, 1986) • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (PL 101-476,1990) Non-English-Speaking Home and Difficulty Speaking English • Children ages 5 to 17 who speak a language other than English at home: 14% (1995), 17% (1999). • Children ages 5 to 17 who speak a language other than English at home and have difficulty speaking English: 5% (1995), 5% (1999). Source: US Census Bureau. (2004). America’s children 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2005, from http://www.childstats.gov/ac2004/summlist.asp Facts About Second Language Development (Tabors, 1997; Garcia, 2005) • Language acquisition and development is most effective in the early years. • Young children are able to learn more than one language. • Second language learning happens most effectively in familiar, natural contexts. • First language scaffolds and contributes to the acquisition of a second language, in this case, English. Facts About Second Language Development (cont.) (Tabors, 1997; Garcia, 2005) • There are ample developmental gains (cognitive, social, and emotional) for the young child through the acquisition of another language. • Learning another language fosters understanding of more than one cultural reality, a necessary characteristic in a multicultural society. • Knowing another language fosters empathy and tolerance by being able to understand the values and frames of reference of others. • Maintaining the home language contributes to the family’s sense of connection. Suggested Practices for English Language Learners (ELL) • Environment—age appropriate literacy materials in English and the first language • Experiences—relevant and appropriate activities with expectations children can meet • Assessment—continuous observation and appropriate alternative assessment practices to document progress • Collaboration with Families—maintaining open communication and interactions with parents and families • Teacher’s knowledge—practices on second language acquisition; knowledge about the child’s culture Chapter 6 Moving into Multicultural Education • Phases – Phase 1: Exploring and Reflecting – Phase 2: Making Choices – Phase 3: Activating Ideas Early Childhood Curriculum Models Suggests teaching and learning practices Establishes use of materials and classroom arrangement Is theorybased Early Childhood Curriculum Models Defines teaching philosophy Provides directions for organizing instruction Elements of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practices (DCAP) (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997) • Universal developmental principles • Individual developmental characteristics and needs • Family, culture and family characteristics Early Childhood Multicultural Education Approaches • Anti-bias approach • Kendall’s model for multicultural education • Head Start Multicultural Principles Framework Delivery of Educational Experiences • APPROACH: Set of guidelines that defines a method used to attain a specific educational purpose. • MODEL: A conceptual framework which provides sequential stages and processes designed to meet a specific educational goal. Chapter 7 Steps toward Multicultural Teaching • Step I: Knowing ourselves as teachers • Step II: Assessing present practices • Step III: Designing the program • Step IV: Implementing the program Moving into Multicultural Teaching: Needs Assessment Teaching practices Classroom Key Areas to Assess Curricular content Community Children and families Selecting Child Appropriate Curricular Content Addresses developmental needs Fosters development of positive self-esteem Culturally meaningful Key components of appropriate curricular content Fosters curiosity Cognitively challenging Significant and authentic experiences Useful Based on realworld experiences Sample Curricular Approaches for Multicultural Teaching • Anti-Bias Approach • Thematic Teaching • Cooperative Learning Chapter 8 Effective Multicultural Classroom Planning Answers Key Questions • Who is the learner? (Knowledge about child) • What will they learn? (Content) • Why do they need to learn it? (Purpose) • How will they learn it? (Strategies) Sources for Multicultural Classroom Planning Children’s interests Observations of daily classroom happenings Curriculum Themes Planning Sources Community Families School events Chapter 9 Planning the Multicultural Curriculum • Attention needs to be placed on the following: – Cultural, ethnic, and racial diversity – Needs of children with exceptionalities – Linguistic differences and needs of young English Language Learners – Social characteristics – Children’s achievement levels – Curricular expectations – Local, national and global events Sources for Multicultural Resources • • • • • • • Families Community Agencies Local Ethnic Stores School Library Local Library Museums and Galleries The Internet Key Multicultural Concepts Explored through Children’s Literature • • • • • • • • Cultural Heritage Linguistic Diversity Cultural Patterns Exceptionalities Age Religious Ideas Traditions Gender Issues Chapter 10 FAMILY DIVERSITY: Key Contemporary Traits • Variety of family membership or configuration • No longer defined by marriage or blood lines • Increase number of: – interracial families – number of grandparents parenting young children – Intergenerational families Involvement • FAMILY INVOLVEMENT: Activities developed with the intent to foster the family’s participation in the classroom activities • COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT: Activities geared toward facilitating the collaboration and participation of community members in the classroom and school activities.
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