VOLATILE COMPOUNDS AND CAPSAICINOID CONTENT OF 7 ORGANICALLY GROWN PERUVIAN CHILI PEPPERS Kirti PATEL, Candy Ruiz, Rosario Rojas Unidad de Investigación en Productos Naturales Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú [email protected], [email protected] 2. Methodology 1. Introduction Chili peppers are an integral part of the Peruvian cuisine. They are grown all over Peru, from the Coast to the Andean mountains and into the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to determine chemical profiles for 7 Peruvian organically grown chili peppers and create a preliminary analytical database. Cultivations were carried out ecologically in a farm located in Chincha, Ica; certified under the rules of SENASA, NOP/USDA and EU organic programs. Capsaicinoids were determined according to Juangsamoot et. al.1 Analysis of volatile compounds was performed by HS-SPME & GC– FID/MS. Tentative identification of compounds was done with NIST 08 & Flavor2.L databases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to group the 7 chili peppers by their chemical compositions. 3. Results & Discussions CACHO DE CABRA AYUCLLO CHALLUARURO CEREZO DULCE MALAGUETA SHINSHIN 4-methyl-2Undecene hexyl hexonate Eucalyptol hexyl hexonate (22.4%) (26.9%) (20.1%) (+)-4-Carene Hexyl 3methylbutanoate (+)-4-Carene Samples Relative % of different classes of compounds 2-Bromo dodecane 2-carene (+)-4-Carene (9.1%) (9.6%) (18.8%) 2-methylpropyl hexanoate Main volatile compounds (%) (3.6%) (3.1%) Dihydrocapsaicin (% per DW) SHU (Scoville Heat Unit) (9.4%) (16.9%) (5.5%) 12-Methyl-oxacyclododecan-2-one Capsaicin (% per DW) Pentadecane 10-methyl-3Undecene 2(5H)-Furanone (1.7%) 1.1 0.8 283000 Pentadecane (10.0%) 10-methylEicosane (8.9%) Pseudocumene (+)-4-Carene (9.9%) (6.2%) Octyl acetate Hexyl hexanoate Pseudocumene (2.8%) (1.8%) (3.2%) 1.2 0.6 266000 1.2 0.4 245899 0.3 0.4 105000 (15.2%) (6.9%) (13.3%) 1-ethyl-2-methyl- 1-ethyl-2-methyl1,2,3,4Tetramethylfulvene Benzene Benzene (11.9%) 1-methyl-1HPyrrole (2.0%) 1.9 0.4 355000 (5.0%) (8.8%) 1,2-dimethyl-1,5- 1-ethyl-2-methylCyclooctadiene Benzene (1.1%) 1.1 0.3 199000 (5.7%) 1.0 0.6 240000 Volatile organic compounds,2,3 as well as capsaicinoid contents,4,5 were similar to previous studies. As shown by PCA analysis (Figure 1), there are specific compounds that are important for the discrimination of the studied samples. 4. Conclusions Fig 1: PCA of capsaicinoids and volatile compounds in 7 samples Total content of capsaicinoids varied from 0.7 – 2.3% per dry weight. Esters and hydrocarbons were the predominant volatile compounds in the 7 samples, followed by terpenoids and halogenated compounds. On the basis of PCA, all the chili peppers studied can be divided into 4 groups. The results of this study contribute to the characterization of Peruvian chili peppers, as a first step towards the creation of an analytical database for native varieties. References Acknowledgements 1. Juangsamoot, J., Ruangviriyachai, C., Techawongstien, S. & Chanthai, S. (2012). Int. Food Res. J. 19 (3), 1217-1226. 2. Junior, S. B., Tavares, A. M., Filho, J. T., Zini, C. A. & Godoy, H. T. (2012). Food Res. Int. 48(1), 98-107 3. Kollmannsberger, H., Rodríguez-Burruezo, A., Nitz, S. & Nuez, F. (2011). J. Sci. Food Agric., 91 (9), 1598-1611. 4. Barbero,G. F., Ruiz, A. G., Liazid, A., Palma, M., Vera, J. C. & Barroso C. G. (2014). Food Chemi, 153, 200-206. 5. Garruti, D. A., Pinto, N. O. F., Alves, V. C. C., da Penha, M. F. A., Tobaruela, E. C. & Araújo, I. M. S. (2013). Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 33 (1), 102-108 This study was supported by FONDECYT-CONCYTEC (Contract 206-2013-CONCyTEC-P) and FINCyT (Contract 128-FINCyTIA2013). We thank Stefan Bederski of Agro Export Topará S.A.C. for providing the Capsicum samples for this study.
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