### Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science

```Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science
Universal constants
Universal gravitational constant
Universal gas constant in SI units
Gas constant in chemical units
Speed of light
Planck’s constant
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
Constant in Wien’s displacement law
Boltzmann’s constant
Loschmidt number
G
R∗
(Rc )∗
c
h
σ
λmax T
k
NA
L
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2
8.3143 J K−1 mol−1
0.0821 L atm K−1 mol−1
2.998 × 108 m s−1
6.626 × 10−34 J s
5.67 × 10−8 J s−1 m−2 K−4
2.897 × 10−3 m K
1.38 × 10−23 J K−1 molecule−1
6.022 × 1023 molecules mol−1
2.69 × 1025 molecules m−3
ρ0
Rd
Md
cp
cv
g/cp
K
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1.25 kg m−3
287 J K−1 kg−1
28.97 kg kmol−1
1004 J K−1 kg−1
717 J K−1 kg−1
9.8 × 10−3 K m−1
2.40 × 10−2 J m−1 s−1 K−1
ρwater
ρice
Rv
Mw
ε
cpw
cvw
cw
ci
Lv
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
103 kg m−3
0.917 × 103 kg m−3
461 J K−1 kg−1
18.016 kg kmol−1
Mw /Md = 0.622
1952 J deg−1 kg−1
1463 J deg−1 kg−1
4218 J K−1 kg−1
2106 J K−1 kg−1
2.50 × 106 J kg−1
2.25 × 106 J kg−1
2.85 × 106 J kg−1
3.34 × 105 J kg−1
Air
Typical density of air at sea level
Gas constant for dry air
Effective molecular mass for dry air
Specific heat of dry air, constant pressure
Specific heat of dry air, constant volume
Thermal conductivity at 0◦ C
(independent of pressure)
Water substance
Density of liquid water at 0◦ C
Density of ice at 0◦ C
Gas constant for water vapor
Molecular mass for H2 O
Molecular weight ratio of H2 O to dry air
Specific heat of water vapor at constant pressure
Specific heat of water vapor at constant volume
Specific heat of liquid water at 0◦ C
Specific heat of ice at 0◦ C
Latent heat of vaporization at 0◦ C
Latent heat of vaporization at 100◦C
Latent heat of sublimation (H2 O)
Latent heat of fusion (H2 O)
Ls
Lf
Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science (continued)
Earth and Sun
Acceleration due to gravity at sea level
Mass of the Earth
Mass of the Earth’s atmosphere
Area of the surface of the Earth
Mass of an atmospheric column
Atmosphere to Pascals
Rotation rate of Earth
Mass of the sun
Mean earth-sun distance
Solar flux
ma
1 atm
Ω
m
r
d
Es
Is
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
9.81 N kg−1
5.97 × 1024 kg
5.3 × 1018 kg
6.37 × 106 m
5.10 × 101 4 m2
1.017 × 104 kg m−2
1.01325 × 105 Pa
7.292 × 10−5 s−1
1.99 × 1030 kg
6.96 × 108 m
1.50 × 1011 m = 1.00 AU
3.85 × 1026 W
2.00 × 107 W m−2 sr−1
TC
TK
1 hPa
1 m3
1d
1 cal
1◦ lat
1◦ lon
1 knot
1 m s−1
1 Sv
1 DU
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
5
9
g0
m⊕
me
RE
Units and Conversions
Fahrenheit-Celsius conversion
Kelvin-Celsius conversion
Hectopascal conversions
Cubic meters to liters
Days to seconds
Calories to Joules
Latitude conversions
Longitude conversions
Knots to miles per hour
Meters per second to knots
Sverdrups to m3 s−1
Dobson unit
(TF − 32)
TC + 273.15
1 mb = 103 dynes cm−2
1000 L
86,400 s
4.1855 J
60 nautical mi = 111 km = 69 statute mi
111 km × cos(latitude)
1 nautical mi/h = 1.15 statute mi/h
1.9426 kt
106 m3 s−1
2.6 × 1016 molecules O3 cm−2
```