Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science Universal constants Universal gravitational constant Universal gas constant in SI units Gas constant in chemical units Speed of light Planck’s constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Constant in Wien’s displacement law Boltzmann’s constant Avogadro’s number Loschmidt number G R∗ (Rc )∗ c h σ λmax T k NA L = = = = = = = = = = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2 8.3143 J K−1 mol−1 0.0821 L atm K−1 mol−1 2.998 × 108 m s−1 6.626 × 10−34 J s 5.67 × 10−8 J s−1 m−2 K−4 2.897 × 10−3 m K 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1 molecule−1 6.022 × 1023 molecules mol−1 2.69 × 1025 molecules m−3 ρ0 Rd Md cp cv g/cp K = = = = = = = 1.25 kg m−3 287 J K−1 kg−1 28.97 kg kmol−1 1004 J K−1 kg−1 717 J K−1 kg−1 9.8 × 10−3 K m−1 2.40 × 10−2 J m−1 s−1 K−1 ρwater ρice Rv Mw ε cpw cvw cw ci Lv = = = = = = = = = 103 kg m−3 0.917 × 103 kg m−3 461 J K−1 kg−1 18.016 kg kmol−1 Mw /Md = 0.622 1952 J deg−1 kg−1 1463 J deg−1 kg−1 4218 J K−1 kg−1 2106 J K−1 kg−1 2.50 × 106 J kg−1 2.25 × 106 J kg−1 2.85 × 106 J kg−1 3.34 × 105 J kg−1 Air Typical density of air at sea level Gas constant for dry air Effective molecular mass for dry air Specific heat of dry air, constant pressure Specific heat of dry air, constant volume Dry adiabatic lapse rate Thermal conductivity at 0◦ C (independent of pressure) Water substance Density of liquid water at 0◦ C Density of ice at 0◦ C Gas constant for water vapor Molecular mass for H2 O Molecular weight ratio of H2 O to dry air Specific heat of water vapor at constant pressure Specific heat of water vapor at constant volume Specific heat of liquid water at 0◦ C Specific heat of ice at 0◦ C Latent heat of vaporization at 0◦ C Latent heat of vaporization at 100◦C Latent heat of sublimation (H2 O) Latent heat of fusion (H2 O) Ls Lf Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science (continued) Earth and Sun Acceleration due to gravity at sea level Mass of the Earth Mass of the Earth’s atmosphere Radius of the Earth Area of the surface of the Earth Mass of an atmospheric column Atmosphere to Pascals Rotation rate of Earth Mass of the sun Radius of the sun Mean earth-sun distance Solar flux Average intensity of solar radiation ma 1 atm Ω m r d Es Is = = = = = = = = = = = = = 9.81 N kg−1 5.97 × 1024 kg 5.3 × 1018 kg 6.37 × 106 m 5.10 × 101 4 m2 1.017 × 104 kg m−2 1.01325 × 105 Pa 7.292 × 10−5 s−1 1.99 × 1030 kg 6.96 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m = 1.00 AU 3.85 × 1026 W 2.00 × 107 W m−2 sr−1 TC TK 1 hPa 1 m3 1d 1 cal 1◦ lat 1◦ lon 1 knot 1 m s−1 1 Sv 1 DU = = = = = = = = = = = = 5 9 g0 m⊕ me RE Units and Conversions Fahrenheit-Celsius conversion Kelvin-Celsius conversion Hectopascal conversions Cubic meters to liters Days to seconds Calories to Joules Latitude conversions Longitude conversions Knots to miles per hour Meters per second to knots Sverdrups to m3 s−1 Dobson unit (TF − 32) TC + 273.15 1 mb = 103 dynes cm−2 1000 L 86,400 s 4.1855 J 60 nautical mi = 111 km = 69 statute mi 111 km × cos(latitude) 1 nautical mi/h = 1.15 statute mi/h 1.9426 kt 106 m3 s−1 2.6 × 1016 molecules O3 cm−2

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