《实用英汉翻译》练习参考答案 选修课使用 Ex. 1 No. 1 • Without clear-cut party differences and in the absence of a good two-party fight over issues, most voters were content to let the Republicans run the government while they poured their energy into their own affairs. • 两党没有明显的区分，也没有在有争议的问题 上进行真正的争斗；因此，大多数选民都乐得 让共和党去掌管政府，而把他们的精力倾注到 自己的事务中。（分析good的词义：AHD: 11. c. genuine; real）: Ex. 1 No. 2 • The decease of a great man is always affecting: but the death of the hero who had soared to the zenith of military glory and civic achievement seems to touch the very nadir of calamity. • 当然伟人的逝世总不免令人伤感，而这个文治 武功盛极一时的英雄之死则使人感到悲痛已极。 • (calamity: an event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster) Ex. 1 No. 3 • Agreement on control and reduction of weapons between the superpowers is impossible, as it has been for so many years. • （agreement：无冠词，是“协议”，还是“一 致意见”？） • 超级大国之间要想就控制和削减武器取得一致 意见是不可能的，多年来的事实已说明了这一 点。 Ex. 1 No. 4 • .Jurgis now saw plainly the meaning of it all. In the beginning, he had got a job the first day; but now he was second-hand, a damaged article, and they did not want him. They had got the best out of him. And now they had thrown him away. The situation had now become desperate. Then came another incident. • 朱尔吉斯终于把一切都看清楚了。当初，他身强力壮， 头一天就找到了工作。但如今他不行了，就像一件破 旧的用品，他们不要他了。他们已从他身上榨尽了血 汗。现在他们把他给扔了。此情此景，令人绝望；接 着，又发生了另一件意外的事情。 Ex. 1 No. 5 • Byron's father, by his first marriage, had a daughter, Augusta, Byron’s half-sister. • 拜伦的父亲与第一个妻子生了一个女儿，名叫 奥古斯塔，也就是拜伦同父异母的姐姐。 • （用释义法：铺叙阐释法） Ex. 1 No. 6 • China has repeatedly been invaded, but each time it has absorbed the invaders and eventually converted them. Over the centuries this has produced a sort of stoicism. （R. Nixon） • 中国曾多次遭受侵略，但每次都将入侵者同化 了并最终使之归顺华夏。几个世纪以来的经历 使中国人产生了一种坚忍自制的精神。（用引 申法，将stoicism从具体化为一般：斯多葛式的 态度 → 坚忍自制的精神） Ex. 1 No. 7 • I was rebuffed and I spent a grim and tragic Christmas Eve in those most unchristian surroundings. • 我受到驳斥，在这种最没有基督教精神的环境 中，度过一个十分惨淡的圣诞节。 • （用缀合法） Ex. 1 No. 8 • He had a sound feeling that idiom was the backbone of a language and he was all for the racy phrase • 他认为习语是语言的支柱，因此特别主张用生 动活泼的短语。这种看法是很有道理的。 • （用拆译法） Ex. 1 No. 9 • Whether such a fine literary effort made by a woman writer exists, I can not say; if it does exist, it is unknown to me. • 女作者能否写出如此绝妙的作品来，我不敢断 言；也许能吧，只是我不知道。 • （用引申法：从一般到具体） Ex. 1 No. 10 • I walk back into our dismantled apartment. It stinks of departure. • 我回到公寓，家具用品都已收拾一空，到处都 弥漫着离情别绪。 • （用拆译法处理dismantled，并作必要的阐释） Ex. 1 No. 11 • Recovery ships and choppers are headed for the splashdown area. • 运载返回地球的宇宙飞船的舰艇和直升飞机正 向溅落区进发。 • （splashdown可直译，recovery应用释义法） Ex. 2 肯定--否定 (一) • • • • • • • 把下面的短语译成汉语，先用肯定式，再用否定式： 1. carelessness (n.) 粗心，疏忽 / 不注意，不细心 2. miss (vt.) 失误；错过 / 不中，没找到，没赶上 3. devoid (adj.) 缺乏. . . 的 / 没有. . . 的 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 (一) • 4. deny (vt.) 拒绝（相信、接受等）/ • 不（相信）、不（接受等） • 5. void (vt.) 取消、缺乏 / • 无效；没有 • 6. mannerless (adj.) 粗野，极其随便的 / • 不讲文明礼貌的 • 7. keep at it 继续干下去 / • 不要放弃 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 (一、词语) • • • • • • • • 8. free from mistakes 正确 / 无误 9. loose end 悬着的一端 / 没扣死的一端 10. save it for real use 留着急需时用 / 不到急需时不动用 11. off guard 疏忽的 / 不加戒备的 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 (一) • 12. low-spirited 情绪低落的 / • 无精打采的 • 13. bilk the conductor 躲着售票员 / • 乘车不买票 • 14. look nowhere 脸色难看 / • 气色不好 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 1. The match is going on. 比赛还在继续。/ • 比赛还未结束。 • 2. Let‘s not phrase in the absolute. 咱们把话说 得活一点。/ • 咱们别把话说绝了。 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 3. I‘m quite house bound. 我一般总呆在家里。/ • 我可以说是大门不出，二门不跨。 • 4. Their families are quite on a par. 他们两家门当 户对。/ • 他们两家不相上下。 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 5. But his armies outrun their supplies. 他的部队 前进了，但供应落后了。/ • 他的部队前进了，但补给供不上。 • 6. The works of art were left intact, the money gone. 钱被偷光了，但艺术品却还在。/ • 钱被偷光了，但艺术品却没动。 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 7. He was balked in his purpose again. 这次他又 失算了。/ • 这次他又没有达到目的。 • 8. The rain may hold off, but it won‘t hurt you to take an umbrella with you. 雨可能会停了， 但带把伞又费什么事呢？/ • 雨可能不会下的，但带把伞无妨。 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 9. The station is no distance at all. 车站很近。 / • 车站没多远。 • 10. It‘s no less than a fraud. 这简直是诈骗。/ • 这无异于诈骗。 Ex. 2 肯定--否定 （二、短语) • 11. It‘s as good as a farce. 这简直是一场闹剧。/ • 这无异于一场闹剧。 • 12. As if I cared! 我会理这一套？/ • 我才不理这 一套呢。 Ex. 2 (3) No. 1 • In our old family Bible one page is reserved for noting special dates. Most entries have an explanation of what happened on that day – a birth, a death, a marriage. But some stand alone. • 我家那本旧《圣经》有一页是留下来记录特别 的日子的。写在里面的日子，多半有说明，不 是婚丧，便是生日。可是有些日子栏里并没有 留下任何记载。 • （注意第二句的否定部位；第三句取否定式在 汉语中意思明晰得多。） Ex. 2 (3) No. 2 • The mice which haunted my house were not common ones, which are said to have been introduced into the country, but a wild native kind not found in the village. • 经常到我房里来骚扰的老鼠是异乎寻常的 一个品种，并不是象有人说的是从外地带 进来的，而是村里没有发现的一种野鼠。 （反→正） Ex. 2 (3) No. 3 • A man makes no noise over a good deed, but passes on to another as a vine to bear grapes again in season. • 一个人不要做了一件好事就多事宣扬，而应带 动别人，就象葡萄的藤蔓，开花结果，年复一 年。 • （英语常否定一个名词概念，表示nonexistence；汉语常否定谓语动词，表示nonaction。） Ex. 2 (3) No. 4 • No moment was sweeter for the Americans than the last instant in the 4-3 hockey victory over the Soviets. • 对美国人来说，没有比以四比三击败苏联冰球 队那胜利的一刻更令人陶醉的了。 • （more than比较句型的一种，取句首否定式， 汉语常取“没有比. . . 更. . . 的了”句式） Ex. 2 (3) No. 5 • All his writings cannot, of course, be considered equally good. • 当然，他的作品不都是同样成功的。 • （部分否定） Ex. 2 (3) No. 6 • The polarization of work force eventually led to by the so-called "computer literacy" can never be taken too seriously. • 因所谓“电脑使用能力”而导致的工人队伍的 两极分化的严重性是不容低估的（这怎么估计 也不算太严重）。 • （注意这种句型，不要译反了。） Ex. 3 No. 1 • I never have thought he should have the guts to have my daughter. • 我从来没想到他竟然厚颜无耻地想把我 女儿搞到手。 • （guts=courage，一般为褒义，但这里是 贬义） Ex. 3 No. 2 • He laid down a fresh set of middle-of-the-road policies with aims on housing, profit sharing and job satisfaction. • 他制定了一系列新的稳健政策，旨在改善住房 条件、利益均分以及满足就业要求。 • （英语中的middle-of-the-way不一定是贬义， 而往往是褒义，相当于“不偏不倚”、“温和” 等义。但汉语的“中间道路”含贬义。） Ex. 3 No. 3 • I don’t trust him. He’s always on the make and his artificial smiles make me sick. • 我不信任他。他总是那么假心假意；那 副矫柔造作的笑容使我作呕。 Ex. 3 No. 4 • Books of voyages and travels became my passion, and in devouring their contents, I neglected the regular exercises of the school. • 我最爱读的书是游记、旅行之类，废寝忘食地 读这种闲书，把学校里的正课练习都给耽误了。 • （Note: “devour” is normally derogatory, but here it is somewhat humorously used. In Chinese it is hard to retain this humor. ） Ex. 3 No. 5 • If politicians and their senior officials tried the same line at international conferences, they could change the whole world in a week. • 如果政治家们和他们的高级官员在国际会议上也尽力按 这种路线方针办事，他们在一个星期内就可以使全世界 改观。 • (Note: The Chinese word 政客is obviously derogatory, and in most cases the English equivalent is “politician”. But “politician” is not always derogatory. Here it means statesmen, since what is talked about is their active roles in international affairs.) Ex. 3 No. 6 • .More aggressive politicians urged Congress to delegate even more power to the local administrations. • 较为进取的政治家们则敦促国会授予地方政府 更大的权限。(Note: Considering the whole sentence, we can see that “aggressive” is commendatory here.) Ex. 3 No. 7 • The spirit of a campaign against poverty does not cost a single cent. It is a matter of vision, of sensitivity. • 为消灭贫苦而大干一场的精神不需要花 一分钱；这需要有远见卓识，需要有敏 锐的洞察力。 • （Note: “vision” and “sensitivity” are difficult words in translation.） Ex. 3 No. 8 • And even if that tragedy does not occur, there will still be tens of millions of living in the other America when the country celebrates its two hundredth anniversary in 1976. • 即使那种悲剧没有再发生，当美国在 1976年庆祝建国二百周年的时候，仍然 会有千千万万的人生活在另一个美国。 Ex. 3 No. 9 • People who come to this establishment are all after maximum turn-on effects. We must gratify them. (turn-on: excitement caused by using drug) • 到这儿来的人都是为了寻求最大限度的 刺激，我们得让他们过足了瘾（或：吸 个够）啊。 • (Note: See the humor in “gratify”?) Ex. 3 No. 10 • My generation in the British foreign service witnessed the diminution of British power caused by the immense growth in economic and therefore in military and political power of the United States of America and the Soviet Union. • 我这一代在英国外交界服务的人，亲眼见到了 英国国力在日益减弱，原因是美苏经济实力的 剧增以及由此而造成的军事和政治力量的壮大。 Ex. 4 (Slide 1) The Shipwrecked Sailor 幸存的水手 Ex. 4 (Slide 2) • A Great ship sailed from Egypt to the mines of Pharaoh, well built, and manned by the best sailors in the country – sailors who has seen heaven and earth, and had the courage of lions. They expected fair winds, but a storm arose and they ship was wrecked. • 一艘巨船从埃及起航，驶往法老的矿山。船造得 很好，船员都是全国最优秀的水手，他们见过世面， 象狮子一般勇猛。他们盼望一帆风顺。不料海上起了 风暴，船沉没了。 Ex. 4 (Slide3) All the sailors perished but one, and he returned to his master and told him of a strange thing that had happened to him, and begged him to send a messenger for him to court, for he had gifts to give Pharaoh. At first his master was angry, thinking he lied; he then bade him speak and say what had befallen him. • 所有的水手中只有一人幸免于难。他回到主人那里， 说他经历了一件怪事，恳求主人为他派一名使者到王 宫去，因为他有礼物要献给法老。主人听了这话起初 很生气，以为他在撒谎，后来命令他说出到底发生了 什么事。 • Ex. 4 (Slide4) “This is it,” said the sailor. “When I was thrown into the sea I clung to a piece of wood, and after I had been three days alone, with no companion but my heart, I was cast on to an island. I lay down for a little in a thicket, then I searched for food. • “事情是这样的，”那个水手说。“我被抛 到海里以后，紧紧抱住了一块木头。我孤身一 人，只有我的心脏和我在一起。三天以后，被 冲到了一个岛上。我先在灌木丛里躺了一会儿， 然后开始寻找食物。 • Ex. 4 (Slide5) “Nothing was lacking: I found figs and grapes, berries and grain, melons of all kinds, fishes and birds. When I had eaten I dug a pit, lighted a fire, and made a burnt-offering to the gods. • “那里什么都有：无花果、葡萄、浆果、谷 物、各种瓜，还有鱼和鸟。填饱了肚子之后， 我挖了一个坑，生起一堆火，用祭品祭了神。 • Ex. 4 (Slide6) • “Suddenly I heard a noise like thunder, which I thought was a huge wave of the sea crashing on the shore. The trees shook; the earth quaked. • “突然，我听到了雷鸣般的声音，还以为是 巨浪在撞击海岸。树木在摇晃，大地在震动。 Ex. 4 (Slide7) • “Then, looking up fearfully, I saw a serpent draw near. He was thirty cubits long, his colour was lazuli, and his body overlaid with gold. He coiled and rose above me, and I fell on my face before him. • “我惊恐万分，抬头一看，只见一条巨蛇 正向我靠近。他有30肘尺（肘尺约等于二十英 寸）长，青金石色，身上覆盖着金子。它卷盘 着在我面前昂着头，吓得我一头跌倒在它的面 前。 Ex. 4 (Slide8) • “ ‘What has brought three, little one, what has brought thee?’ he said. ‘Tell me speedily what has brought three; tell me something I have not heard, or I do not know, or thou shalt vanish like a flame.’ • “‘是什么把你带到这里来的，小东西，是 什么把你带到这里来的？’他问道。‘快告诉 我，是什么把你带来的；给我说说我还不知道 的或者从未听说过的事情，否则的话，你就会 象火焰一样消失掉。’ Ex. 4 (Slide9) • “Then I told him of how I had been wrecked and cast on his island by the waves. • “于是我就告诉他我的船是怎样沉没的，我 又是如何被海浪冲到他的岛上来的。 Ex. 4 (Slide10) • “ ‘Fear not, fear not, little one. Do not look sad. Here in this island are seventy-five serpents, I and my brethren and children. Thou shalt be with us for four months; then a ship shall come from thy land, and thou shalt return and die in thine own town.’ • “‘别怕，别怕，小东西。别一副垂头丧气 的样子。这个岛上有75条蛇，即我和我的兄弟 以及孩子们。你将和我们一起呆四个月，到那 时会有一艘船从你的国土驶来，你就可以回去， 死在你的故乡。’ Ex. 4 (Slide11) • “I bowed before him, and I told him that he should be honoured and rewarded for his kindness to me. I would tell Pharaoh of his greatness. I would bring him sacred oils and perfumes and incense, such as is burned before the gods in their temples. I would bring him ships of treasures of Egypt, as it is good to do to a god – a friend of men in a far country, of which men know hot. • “我向他鞠了一躬，对他说，他对我的善意应该受到尊 敬和回报。我将把他的伟大之处告诉法老。我将给他带来 圣油、香料和香，就是人们在神殿里祭神时焚烧的那些东 西。我将把埃及的珍宝成船成船地给他载来，因为敬奉神 是应该的，这个神在一个遥远国度里，是人的朋友，但不 为所人知。 Ex. 4 (Slide12) • “He only smiled. • “ “Thou art not rich in perfumes,” said he. ‘All thou hast is common incense. As for me, I am prince of the land of Punt, and I have perfumes. Of all the things thou hast promised, only oil is not common here. But when thou hast felt this island thou shalt never see it again: it shall be changed into waves.’ • “他只是笑了笑。 • “‘你们的香料并不多啊，’他说。‘你们只有普通的香。 至于我么，我是蓬特国的王子，我有的是香料。你许诺的那 些东西中，只有油在这里不多见。不过当你离开这个岛屿之 后，就再也看不到它了，它将化成波涛。’ Ex. 4 (Slide13) • “For four months I dwelt with the seventy-five serpents, and at the end of that time a ship from Egypt drew near. I climbed a tree to try to make out who was on board; then I went to the great serpent to tell him that, as he had said, a ship had come. But he knew it before i spoke. • “我跟75条蛇一起住了四个月。第四个月结束 的时候，从埃及来的一条船驶近了。我爬上一 棵树，想看看谁在船上。随后我来到巨蛇那里， 告诉他，正象他说过的那样，来了一条船。然 而我还未开口他就知道了。 Ex. 4 (Slide14) • “ “Farewell, little one, farewell. Go to thy house; see thy children; be honoured in thy town. These are my wishes for thee.’ • “‘再见了，小东西，再见了。回家去吧；去见 你的孩子，在你的小城里接受别人的尊敬吧。 这就是我对你的祝愿。’ Ex. 4 (Slide15) • “Then he gave me gifts of perfumes, and sweet-smelling woods, and ivory tusks, and apes, and all kinds of precious things. And he told me that I should come to my country in two months. • “然后他送给我许多礼物，有香料、檀香 木、象牙、猿猴，还有各种各样珍贵的东西。 他还告诉我说，我将在两个月后回到自己的国 家。 Ex. 4 (Slide16) • “So I went down to the sea, and called to the sailors in the ship, and they put to shore for me. Before I left the island I did homage to the great serpent king and to those who dwelt with him.” • “于是我来到海边，呼叫船上的人，他们 把船靠了岸，让我上船。我在离开海岛之前， 向伟大的蛇王和跟他在一起的那些蛇鞠躬致 敬。” Ex. 4 (Slide17) • That was the story the shipwrecked sailor told his master, and again he besought him to give him a follower, and to take him to the court of Pharaoh, that he might be presented to the king and offer him the gifts of the great serpent of the island that he had visited for a little, and that had now disappeared into the waves. • 这就是那个幸存的水手告诉他主人的故事。他再 次恳求主人给他派一名随从，带他到法老的宫殿里去。 他要面见国王，把那个岛屿上的巨蛇送的礼物献给国 王。他曾在岛上住过一段时间，而那个岛屿现在已消 失在大海的波涛之中了。 End of Exercises 1-4 • • • • Now do the following exercises: 1. He is a boy who is diligent. 2. She is a girl whom he ___________. 3. We don’t like him because he is not the one who is kind and ___________. polite. • You used to get up very late. Now you get up very early. We are used to getting up early. I used to eat alone. I was used to eating alone. • When people meet in the morning, they Good morning greet each other by saying ____________. • When they meet at night, they don’t say Good night Good evening ______________, but _______________. 1. When people meet before noon, they say Good morning ________________. 2. When people meet at night, they don’t say Good night Good evening _______________, but ________________.
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