Integrated Language Arts The Philippine Roadmap to Multi-literacy Dina Ocampo Leonor Diaz Portia Padilla Liu Vilbar Victor Villanueva Mark Norman Maca Pau Fontanos Liza Villanueva Roberto Ruda Foundations of the Policy Recommendations thru BESRA • Philippine language context and the evolution of language use • Cultural identity, language and social development • How language is learned; Multilingualism • How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy • The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and Thinking Skills across languages • Global studies/experiences in bilingual education Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 3 We are multilingual We are by virtue of our geography and history, a multi-lingual people. This gift has for too long been viewed as a liability. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 4 The Philippine Language Context 120 languages (McFarland, 1993) or 171 (Philippine Commission on Educational Reform, 2000) Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Samarnon (Belvez, 2002) Filipino is the national language, and incorporates vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e., English, Arabic and Spanish (Gonzales, 1998) Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 5 Cultural identity, language and literacy • Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. • Culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity • Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture • Language is fundamental to cultural identity Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 6 Language Acquisition and Learning Language Acquisition • the way children learn their mother tongue • the process of natural assimilation of a language • requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. • all children can acquire language ability because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994). Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education • Language Learning • The process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire • Refers to second, third, nth language learned by a person • Can be learned (or not learned) well by – Immersion – Structuralist or Formalist – Audiio-lingual – Communicative competence 7 Childhood Bilingualism • from Monolingual Through interactions in the community Through teaching in school Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education to Bilingual Natural Additive 8 The Issue of Biliteracy The prevailing ideas posit that literacy is outside the domain of bilingualism. Bilingualism Biliteracy • For our purposes, we should look at it this way: Bilingualism Biliteracy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 9 Therefore….. Experience Oral Symbols Printed Symbols In L2 Oral Symbols Printed Symbols Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 10 Word Reading and Spelling Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 11 Sentence and Listening Comprehension Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 12 What’s going on here? % of Schools Surpassing 60% on NAT 50.00 50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 2002/3 2003/4 2004/5 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 13 Dina Ocampo, UP College of 0.00 Education Math % English % Science % Overall % The Reality Experience Oral Symbols in L1 Oral Symbols in Filipino What’s missing here? Printed Symbols in Filipino SCHOOL Oral Symbols In English Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education Printed Symbols In English 14 Cross-linguistic Transfer of Literacy Ability • Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy transfers across languages • Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in another language (English) • Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness in the other language • Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English for elementary grade students Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 15 Arabic Other Languages English •A global language •Continues to be a language •of aspiration among Filipinos Filipino •Easier to learn to read •Language of the media •Understood by most Filipinos Cross Linguistic Transfer Of Literacy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education Child’s Language •Provides the foundation for additional languages •Facilitates learning subject matter •Increases school participation 16 National Language and Literacy Strategy #1 • Implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools • Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual Education Policy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 17 Programming of Languages of Learning Domains of Use Languages of Learning 4th Yr 3rd Yr Grade/Year Levels 2nd Yr 1st Yr Grade 6 Grade 5 Child's Language Filipino English Arabic/Others Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 ECCD 0 1 Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18 National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 • Create better learning environments to support language and literacy education of students. 1. 2. 3. Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. Use children’s literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of instructional materials in the designated languages of learning at the school, division, and regional levels. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 19 National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 4. Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies – in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching – on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context – in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach 5. Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. 6. Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 20 Instructional Materials should be made for: 1. Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. 2. Children’s literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. 3. Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. 4. Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. 5. MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. 6. Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. 7. English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 8. Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. 9. Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. 10.MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. 11.Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. 12.Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. 13.Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. 21 National Language and Literacy Strategy #3 • Enliven critical social support structures in the community to support learners in school. 1. 2. Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and support for the implementation of the language and literacy programming strategy. Raise critical awareness among parents about effective language and literacy learning processes. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 22 Overview 1. Introduction to the presentation 2. Our process a. Review of the curriculum given to the LAT (Grades 1-10) b. Affirmation of the philosophy of language and literacy development c. Some issues on the assessment framework Overview 3. Groups a. English - Grade 1-3; Grades 4-6; Grade 7-10 b. Filipino - Grade 1-3; Grades 4-6; Grade 7-10 c. Mother Tongues Overview 3. Uses literature (various forms) 4. Follows an explicit process for teaching that is (mostly) consistent throughout the languages curriculum indicating recognition of Filipino and English as second languages of our students 5. Builds on our culture and literatures 6. Encourages indigenous process of learning such as group work, group goal-setting, cooperative activities and collective decision making Overview 7. the 3 curriculum sets for the languages communicate 8. second language development is built on first language abilities Main Characteristics 1. Multilingualism is the basis for the Language Curriculum of the K-12 Basic Education Program, building upon the natural ability of Filipinos for language learning. 2. The curriculum spirals the competencies across the levels but in the high school levels, there is greater emphasis on reading comprehension of various texts, writing and composition, study and thinking strategies which are all in support of critical and creating thinking development. Coherence with the Basic Education Program Goals 1. The K-12 languages curriculum ensures that processes and products of learning actively foster and contribute to the achievement of the basic education program goals. 2. Competencies are spiralled across the curriculum and year levels. Upper level courses will focus on writing, comprehension and study strategies. 3. Content includes print and electronic texts that are age, context and culture appropriate. Early Grades (Grade 1) Outline per language area 1. Main features of the curriculum 2. Standards 3. Key stage outcomes -- at grade 3, 6, 10 and 12 4. Competencies 5. Texts 6. Organization of the teachers’ guide 7. Organization of the learning package Mother tongues Languages 1. Ilocano 2. Pangasinan 7. Waray 8. Cebuano 3. Kapampangan • Chavacano 4. Tagalog • Meranao 5. Bikol Albay/Legaspi • Maguinadano 6. Hiligaynon • Tausug Features of the Curriculum Standards Competencies Mother Tongues • As a result of curriculum planning, a teachers’ guide containing the orthography, phonological guides, literacy program sequences, common utterances for each of these languages has been prepared. Batayang Aklat sa Bawat Wika 1. Alphabet 2. Vowels -- keywords, key pictures 3. Consonants -- keywords, key pictures 4. Spelling and orthographic rules 5. Grammar rules 6. High frequency words with their Filipino and English translations 7. Common utterances with their Filipino and English translations 8. Sequence of letters for teaching word recognition and spelling 9. List of phrases, sentences, stories for developing word recognition and spelling 10. Big books 11. Rules that govern borrowed words (based on KWF) Sample Output: Cebuano Gramatika • Pandiwa- Berbo • Panahunan Karon Na (present) Nahuman Na(past) Umaabot (future) nagkaon nagsayaw nagkanta nagsulat naglangoy nikaon nisayaw nikanta nisulat nilangoy mokaon mosayaw mokanta mosulat molangoy Sample Common Expressions: Bikol Bikol Filipino English Dios mabalos po. Maraming salamat Thamk you Daeng anu pa man. Walang anuman. It’s all right. Puede tabi? Makihoron man Pwede po ba? May I? Patawad tabi Paghingi ng tawad. I’m sorry Sample Story: Tausug • BANSAG KAN PUTI KAY PULA • Ha hula Ginhawa baz tawagun sin • mahardika bazsa, awn piyag anak kambal • nahiluwakag pa kamatauran. ziyanan sin • maas nila hi Puti (WBC) kay Pula (RBC) • pagka in sila piyag anak mapula iban • maputi in warna sin pamaranan nila. Chavacano Alphabet How many How many Consonants? 24 Vowels? 5 a –atis e- ekis I -ibon o - okra u - ulan b - baso d - damo g - gulay j - jacket l - lapis n - nanay n - nino q - queso s - sabon v- vinta x - x-ray z - zipper How many Dipthongs? c - computer ay - palay f - Filipino oy - kahoy h - holen iw - baliw k - kubo ts - tsinelas m - manok ng - ngipin p - pusa r - relo t - tatay w - watawat y - yoyo Filipino: Grade 1 Features • Oral language development and listening • Songs, rhymes, language games • Sight words UNANG MARKAHAN Unang Linggo Tema: Ako at ang aking Pamilya Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan: Nakikinig at tumutugon sa mga tanong ukol sa sarili Gramatika: Natutukoy ang pangalan ng tao, bagay, pook o hayop Phonological Awareness: May kakayahang ipalakpak ng papantig ang isang salita Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya Nakatutugon sa sariling pangalan; Nakapagbibi gay ng impormasyon tungkol sa sarili Nagbibigay ng pangalan ng mga miyembro ng pamilya Nakikinig sa pagpapakilal a ng guro sa kaniyang sarili Natatanong at nasasagot ang “Ano ang pangalan mo?” Nakakaawit ng “Sino ang Kaibigan Ko?” (Hanapin sa banghay aralin linggo 1) Nakikinig ng pag-uusap sa pagitan ng guro at kaklase T: Ano ang pangalan mo? S: Ako si ________. Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya Nasasabi at naipapalakpa k nang papantig ang pangalan Naaawit muli ang “Sino ang Kaibigan Ko?” Nagagaya ang guro sa papantig na pagpalakpak ng pangalan Naipapalakpa k ang mga pantig ng pangalan binibigkas ito Unang Araw Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan ; Gramatika Ikalawang Araw Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan ; Gramatika English: Grade 1 Features • Begins oral language development activities in the second semester of Grade 1 • Songs, rhymes, language games, LEA, • Integrates science concepts that are basic to understanding the self and the immediate environment • Give teachers options on what activities to do What do we need to do? • all that for the other mother tongues • more texts for the many mother tongues • Filipino Sign Language High School (Grade 7) Filipino: Grade 7 Mga Pangkalahatang Pamantayan sa Bawat Yugto (12) • Sa dulo ng baitang 12, kailangang nakakáya ng mga estudyante na pagsanibin ang mga kasanayan sa komunikasyon at wika tungo sa paglikha ng kahulugan na gumagamit ng pabigkas at pasulat na mga teksto, iba’t ibang anyong pampanitikan, at mga kontekstong diskursibo para sa mga personal at propesyonal na layunin. sa dulo ng Baitang 10 • kailangang nakakáya ng mga estudyante ina ipaliwanag, bigyan ng halaga, at ipakatawan ang impormasyon sa loob at sa pagitan ng mga teksto at konteksto ng larang ng kaalaman. Sa dulo ng baitang 6 • kailangang nakakáya ng mga estudyante na bumuo ng mga kahulugan at ipahayag ang mga ito sa pamamagitan ng malikhain, angkop, at wasto ang gramatikang pabigkas at pasulat na wika. Sa dulo ng baitang 3 • kailangang nakakáya ng mga estudyante na ipakita ang sigla sa pagtuklas at pagdanas ng pabigkas at pasulat na mga teksto at ipahayag nang mabisà ang mga ibig sabihin at mga nadaramá. Features • social and practical contexts for language use (projects and activities) • integration of contemporary texts in Filipino with the more traditional titles • Has content standards pertaining to Tatas, Pakikitungo sa Wika at Panitikan, and Mga Estratehiya sa Pag-aaral LINGGO PAMAGAT NG AWIT/ AKLAT 1 Batang-bata ka Pa 2 Sundalong Patpat Virgilio S. Almario 3 Isang Dosenang Klase ng High School Students (mula sa ABNKKNSNPLako) Bob Ong 4 Sandaang Damit Fanny Garcia 5 Kung Bakit Umuulan Rene Villanueva 6 Alamat ni Tungkung Langit Roberto Añonuevo 7 8 Salamin Ang Pintor Assunta Cuyegkeng Jerry Gracio 9 Impeng Negro Rogelio R. Sicat AWTOR LINGGO PAMAGAT NG AWIT/ AKLAT AWTOR 11 Ang Ambahan ni Ambo Ed Maranan 12 Nemo, ang Batang Papel Rene Villanueva 13 Mabangis na Lungsod Efren Abueg 14 Daragang Magayon 15 Kay Mariang Makiling 16 Ang Duwende 17 Trese Isyu 5 Budjette Tan 18 Alamat ng Waling-Waling Gaudencio V. Aquino 19 Mga Alamat (Mula sa El Fili) Jose Rizal Edgar Samar English: Grade 7 English Key Stage Standards (12) • Students should be able to integrate communication and language skills for creating meaning using oral and written texts, various genres, and discursive contexts for personal and professional purposes. by the end of Grade 10 • Students should be able to interpret, evaluate and represent information within and between learning area texts and discourses. by the end of Grade 6 • Student should be able to construct meanings and communicate them using creative, appropriate and grammatically correct oral and written language. by the end of Grade 3 • Students should be able to demonstrate eagerness to explore and experience oral and written texts and to communicate meanings and feelings effectively. Features Thematic design Renaming of the traditions of Philippine literature, e.g. instead of pre-colonial, folk literature in translation Non-genre based; Uses literature as primary reading material and informative texts as parallel/supplementary texts Discourse-oriented grammar focusing on specific areas of difficulty assessed in international language proficiency tests Integration of media literacy principles RECOMMENDED PRIMARY SELECTIONS First Grading Period: Folk Literature in English Week 1: Filipino Traditional Proverbs Week 2: Origin of this World (Maranao) Week 3: How the World was Created (Panayan) and Legend of the Seafoam (Neil Garcia) Week 4: Samal Genesis Week 5: Three Versions on Why the Sky is High (Tagalog, Iloko, Hiligaynon) Week 6: Four Rice Legends (Tagalog, Nabaloi, Ibaloi, Bohol) Week 7: Three Monkey Legends (Iloko, Maranao, Tagalog) Week 8: The Heroes of Ibalon (Excerpts) Week 9: Indarapatra and Sulayman (Excerpts) Week 10: The Life of Lam-Ang (Excerpts) Second Grading Period: Philippine Literature in English during the Apprenticeship Period Week 1: Dead Stars (Paz Marquez Benitez) Week 2: The Mats (Francisco Arcellana) Week 3: The Small Key (Paz Latorena) Week 4: How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (Manuel Arguilla) Week 5: Wedding Dance (Amador Daguio) Week 6: The Bread of Salt (NVM Gonzales) Week 7: The Day the Dancers Came (Bienvenido Santos) Week 8: Moonlight on Manila Bay (Fernando Maramag) Week 9: Inviting a Tiger for a Weekend (Jose Garcia Villa) Week 10: If You Want to Know What We Are (Carlos Bulosan) Learning Package SCHEMA BUILDING, VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT, LISTENING/VIEWING TASKS ACTUAL ACTUALREADING READING SELECTION SELECTION COMPREHENSION COMPREHENSION TASKS, TASKS, GRAMMAR GRAMMAR ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITIES,WRITING WRITINGSKILLS SKILLSACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES CULMINATING CULMINATINGACTIVITY ACTIVITYINFUSED INFUSEDWITH WITH STUDY STUDYSKILLS SKILLSAND AND MEDIA MEDIALITERACY LITERACY Teacher’s Guide LESSON SEGMENTS SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES ADDRESSED ON A DAILY BASIS next steps KINDERGARTEN • is socializing the child into the learning environment, finding one’s place in school • helping children develop fundamental abilities such as listening to others, speaking freely, the value of basic numeracy and literacy, following direction, working together, managing their behavior within a group GRADES 1-3 • • • • Language and Literacy in the Mother Tongue Maths Science (integrated within English, Health, PE) Arts (Music, Visual Arts, Movement) • Values • Health • MAPE • • Filipino (phased in over 2 years) English (phrased in over 3 years) what’s new in Grades 1-3? • developing language and literacy in the mother tongues • integrating Science in various subject areas • revising the way Social Studies are taught (away from rote learning!) Grades 4-6 • Filipino • English • Maths • Science • Social Studies Values MAPE EPP Health What’s new in Grades 4-6? • Filipino and English will still be in development but using a content driven process. Contentbased instruction for language development and/or content literacy. Social studies uses an history framework for developing social science competencies and knowledge. Math, Science, Values, MAPE, EPP content and competencies will spiral. Grades 7-10 • • • • • Filipino Values English MAPE Maths TLE Science “exploratory courses” Social Studies What’s new in Grade 710? • the curriculum will spiral • veers away from disciplinal organization of the curriculum using content as the only organizing factor • begins a program where students will have college courses, voc-tech courses, and science/sports/arts/courses What’s new n Grades 1112? • well.... Grades 11 and 12! • most interesting is the “TESDA” integration and the possibility of students being able to get COCs at the end of Grade 12 • must consider “college readiness skills” • have a counterpart in the ALS programming for basic education MARAMING SALAMAT PO!
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