Journées du GDR Robotique GT2 Autonomous vehicles Marine and Ground Robotics 2 Octobre 2014 Vincent Creuze [email protected] Youcef Mezouar [email protected] Journées du GDR Robotique GT2 Autonomous vehicles Aerial Robotics Ground Robotics Marine Robotics Journées du GDR Robotique GT2 Autonomous vehicles Marine Robotics 2 Octobre 2014 Coordinator Vincent Creuze [email protected] Context and main scientific issues • Wide range of robot types, as well as applications: observation/manipulation, remote operation/autonomy • Scientific issues are the same than mobile or manipulation robotics, but are made more difficult due to the medium : turbidity, scattering, refraction, mechanical disturbances, damping, vortices, no underwater electromagnetic propagation… 4 Key topics • Perception & localization (vision, sonar, electrical sensing, pressure…) Visual mine detection, I3S Acoustic mine detection (I. Quidu, ENSTA) Electrical sense, Irccyn Vision based pipeline tracking, I3S/ISIR/Cybernetix 3D Reconstruction, LIRMM Sonar SLAM, ENSTA Bretagne Key topics • Coordination, communication Underwater reflections of sound, NURC COMET FUI Project, ENSTA Bretagne • Autonomous decision, software architecture PEA Action, ONERA/LAAS/DGA Key topics • Control, modelling, prediction Waves, sea currents, impacts Mini ROV, Videoray • Design, manipulation, technology © Osada/Seguin, ne pas reproduire sans autorisation Angels, Irccyn Blaster, DRASSM 7 Summary of 2012-2014 activities Labs 18 laboratories + IFREMER + DGA (Gesma) 70 Researchers 30 PhD students Active participation of industrials during the meetings : CGG Veritas, EDF R&D, Tecnalia, Robotswim, Bouygues, ENI-Saipem… 8 Summary of 2012-2014 activities Industry 18 laboratories + IFREMER + DGA (Gesma) 70 Researchers 30 PhD students Active participation of industry during the meetings : CGG Veritas, EDF R&D, Tecnalia, Robotswim, Bouygues, ENI-Saipem… 9 Summary of 2012-2014 activities External links Marine Robotics Workgroup created in 2012 8 scientific meetings & workshops (2012-2014) April 5, 2012, La Seyne, (org. IFREMER), 60 attendees. Nov. 22, 2013, Paris, (org. GT2), 40 attendees. Feb. 14, 2013, Paris, (org. ENSTA Bretagne), 40 attendees. March 21, 2013, Lyon (wokshop ERF), (org. GT2 & eu-TG Marine Robotics ), 40 att. May 14, 2013, Marseille, (org. DRASSM/FDO ENSTA), 60 attendees. Jan. 15-16, 2014, Toulouse, (org. Onera, DRASSM/FDO ENSTA, GT6, GT2), 60 att. March 12, 2014, Rovereto, Italy, (org. GT2, ISME & eu-TG Marine Robotics), 50 att. Oct 15, 2014, Brest, (org ENSTA & GT2, conf MOQESM), 60 attendees. © Osada/Seguin, ne pas reproduire 10 Summary of 2012-2014 activities External links • IFREMER Scientific meeting in 2012 and April 2015. • eu-TG Marine Robotics (euRobotics) co-organization of ERF workshops (2013 & 2014) • Academic & industrial project CORSAIRE (DRASSM, Département des Recherches Archéologiques Subaquatiques et Sous-marines, FDO ENSTA ParisTech Alumni) © Osada/Seguin, ne pas reproduire 11 Pending and future actions • Next meetings Nov. 28, 2014, Journée GT6-GT2, Rob bio-inspirée & Rob marine, Paris. March 2015, Workshop « Marine Robotics » à l’European Robotics Forum, Vienne, co-organized with eu-TG Marine Robotics. April 2015, 2 day meeting IFREMER / GDR, La Seyne-sur-mer. • Links to develop… GDR ISIS (sonar, vision) and GDR MACS. Joint meetings with GT3/4/5. Increase the activity of the GDR’s laboratories within the eu-GT « Marine Robotics » euRobotics. 12 Journées du GDR Robotique GT2 Autonomous vehicles Ground Robotics 2 Octobre 2014 Coordinator Youcef Mezouar [email protected] Applications LABORATORIES Laboratories involved in Ground Autonomous vehicles Institut Pascal, Heudiasyc, IRCCyn, IEF, Xlim, UTBM, ISIR, LAAS … INRIA (Emotion, lcare, lagadic, imara) LIVIC Caor Pôles de compétitivité Moveo, Véhicule du futur, Itrans, Viameca … ANR « Transports Terrestres Durables » then « Transport Durable & Mobilité « : few projects in the field of autonomous vehicles. LABEX - EQUIPEX Innovative Mobility : Smart and Sustainable Solutions Coordinateur Maîtrise des Systèmes de Systèmes Technologiques Coordinateur French companies PSA Integration of ADAS acting on the vehicle control Autonomous vehicles not before 2020 Renault Internal project in progress EasyMiles : LIGIER + MICHELIN+ ROBOSOFT New company : electrical vehicle – vision based navigation – last kms Main Topics GDR GT 2 VT Ground robotics Localisation & Mapping Environment Understanding Control Multi-Robots Mechatronics Localisation & Mapping Perception Data Fusion SLAM Topo/metric/ semantic Mapping Multi-robots Localisation from SIG Binocular Localisation & Mapping Dhome et al. Robust SLAM with few image features Chapuis et al. Topometric and Semantic Representation For Navigation In Large Scale Environments Scientific issues • New sensors design: Spherical RGBD views • Long-term mapping (day/night ; winter/summer) • Semantic abstraction: identification of objects, places, and activities Navigation-based representation Metric level: accurate localisation Topological level: accessibility Semantic level: context-based query Navigation-based control Semantic route description Visual servoing Trajectory tracking Patrick Rives, Romain Drouilly EPI Lagadic INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée Localisation&Mapping Navigation based representation Ego-centered spherical images are automatically labelled with Random Forest and CRF. Then a Semantic Graph is extracted from the labelled image. Semantic route description Navigation script: Orientation: building (1) to the left, sign (1) at the front, Move forward until: sign (1) not visible, sign (2) at the front Orientation: building (1) to the left, sign (2) at the front, building (2) at the front, car (1) to the left, ...... Patrick Rives, Romain Drouilly EPI Lagadic INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée Localisation&Mapping Patrick Rives, Romain Drouilly EPI Lagadic INRIA Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée Localisation by coupling GPS with lane markings sensed by a camera system Vehicle pose Loosely coupling Position domain Positioning systems with standard automotive sensors with a Lane Departure Warning System camera that detects lane markings accurately mapped Zui Tao and Philippe Bonnifait Robust localisation : Multisensor Fusion GNSS data GPS-Sat Angular Speeds Accelerations Global Localization system Global Position (possible Multi-path errors) Corrected Global Position Odometry Position of the car on the road Positioning correction Birdeye Images Sub-map 2D scans 2D Lidars 2D map manager Process: Sub-map building / Sub-map localization ➢GPS + odometry + inertial fusion produces an estimation of global pose ➢2D Laser Range Finders provide measurements to buid occupancy grid sub-maps ➢Sub-maps are created/loaded by a map-manager around the globlal position to be able to cover wide areas and to correct+stabilize the global solution ➢Inverse perspective projection (birdeye view) is applied on the Images from one camera to have an ortogonal view of the road ➢The ortogonal view is used to determine the position of the car within the road when possible to generate positioning corrections Philippe Martinet et al. Environment Understanding Perception Learning Pattern recognition Data Fusion and Tracking Environment Modelling Scene interpretation •Mobile surveillance in urban areas – EUREKA-ITEA2 SPY project – Mobile caméra (vehicule) – Semi-dense ultra-fast tracking – Ego-movement estimation and stabilisation – 3D Reconstruction – Actions recognition David Filliat et al Realtime pedestrian detection • Detection of pedestrian and of their orientation in real-time – HOG+SVM detection (GPU) – Pose classifier also using HOG – Tracking •Tracking results integration – Context based object detection – Bias detection scores with tracking results David Filliat et al Dynamic trajectory planning • Global and local planning for intelligent vehicle – PAMU project with Renault and UTC – Definition of a map structure – Global planning with A* – Local planning around dynamic obstacle – Intersection management Polygons to check David Filliat et al Perception of driving scene Detection and tracking of moving objects Detection of navigable space Using : Environment sensor data Digital maps C2C communications Data fusion based approaches Temporal data fusion Multisensor data fusion Uncertainties modelling Grid, object, track level Centralized and distributed data fusion Eucar Evidential grids to represent the environment Véronique Cherfaoui and Philippe Bonnifait, Perception of driving scene in Hard conditions Combining conventional vision and fog properties To improve environment understanding fog conditions Jean-Philippe Tarel et al Perception of driving scene in Hard conditions DANGER SAFETY START Illustration of stimuli and scanpaths Illustration of dynamic decision-making ( Danger Sécurité Freiner Accélérer Contexte Stimulus Réponse temps Perception of Rough terrain Mechatronics Structural & Dimensional synthesis Locomotion 840 800 Z1 854 853 852 852' 850 Z2 861 833 832 870 831 Z Y 810 820 X Simulation Passive Control Agile poly-articulated Locomotion Redundant Poly-articulated locomotion systems High performance for obstacle crossing Simultaneous optimisation of the mechanism configuration and contact forces Stability and adherence maximisation Faiz Ben Amar et al. Agile poly-articulated Locomotion Active control of the stability Active anti-roll control on the robot SPIDO (4 driving and steering wheels) Predictive control MPC and minimization of the lateral load transfer Predictive control GPC for trajectory tracking with sliding (aggressive manoeuvers) Faiz Ben Amar et al. Agile Vehicles Jean Christophe Fauroux et al Control Perception Modelling Identification & Observation Kinematic & Dynamic Control Multi-robots Sensor Based Control Control Overturn anticipation High speed Moderate speed Roland Lenain Benoit Thuilot Multi-robots Perception Decentralized /Centralized Perception Decentralized /Centralized Control Communication High level management Autonomous systems in cubic kilometers Large scale, long lasting missions handled by fleets of autonomous cooperating systems (air & ground) A strong will to test / validate / challenge the developments in realistic scenarios AGVs Mana, Minne and Momo (not shown) Fixed-wing AAVs (now all retired, currently collaborating with ENAC) Simon Lacroix et al. Multi-robots Perception/Localisation • Point cloud classification Unsupervized classification using Gaussian Mixture Models Exploiting the Lidar intensities and multiple-echoes Localisation Real Time SLAM visual / INS / (“Pushing the limit of EKF feature based SLAM”) (http://rtslam/openrobots.org Set membership map-based localization (matching point-clouds with initial 2.5D and 3D models) Visual place recognition “Location graphs” data structure (independent of speed and viewpoints)&Pure Bayesian probabilites Estimation : learning context-dependant heteroscedastic models for bayes filters Simon Lacroix et al. Visual-servoing based Multi-robots navigation Youcef Mezouar et al. Visual-servoing based Multi-robots navigation GT2 Autonomous vehicles Aerial Robotics Ground Robotics Marine Robotics Youcef Mezouar et al.
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