Types of Bilingual Education

Classes with students of
different native languages
Students learn
from each other
Japanese and English
native speaking teachers
Presentation Handouts
Aims and Types of Bilingual Education
There are “varying aims of bilingual education” because it “does not
necessarily concern the balanced use of two languages in the
classroom. Behind bilingual education are varying and conflicting
philosophies and politics of what education is for” (Baker, 2001, pp.
193). These different aims then lead to various actual school systems of
monolingual or bilingual education.
いうことに関して、相反するさまざまな考え方がある。」 (Oka, 1996, p. 182). そ
One activity is to say which of the following aims you think are good for
everyone in a society. A more advanced activity would be to match the
aims with the Types of Bilingual Education that each aim might lead to.
Varying Aims of Bilingual Education
1. To assimilate individuals or groups into the mainstream of society (個人や集団を社
2. To unify a multilingual society (多言語社会を統一する).
3. To enable people to communicate with the outside world (人々が外の世界とコミュニ
4. To provide language skills which are marketable, aiding employment and status (雇用
5. To preserve ethnic and religious identity (民族的、宗教的アイデンティティを保つ).
6. To reconcile and mediate between different linguistic and political communities (言語、
7. To spread the use of a colonial language (宗主国の言語の使用を広める).
8. To strengthen elite groups and preserve their position in society (エリート集団を強化
9. To give equal status in law to languages of unequal status in daily life (法律によって、
10. To deepen understanding of language and culture (言語や文化への理解を深める).
Adapted from Baker (2001, p. 193) and Oka (1996, p. 182).
Cases of Bilingual Education in the World
Activities: Using the information on the following slides, consider the “10 Cases of
Languages in Education” one at a time. The cases describe various realistic
situations in the world where languages are connected to education. Consider
how the varying aims and other factors lead to the chart of “Types of Bilingual
Education” based on Baker (1993, 2001) and Oka (1996). Next use the template
to make a paragraph for each case assigned to your group by deciding on one of
the choices in boldface type for each factor. Then have one person say it out loud
to everyone. An extra activity is to describe a school system in another region of
the world for everyone to analyze.
Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd ed.). Clevedon,
UK: Multilingual Matters.
Oka, H. (1996). Bairingaru kyoiku to daini gengo shutoku [Bilingual education and second
language acquisition]. Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten. (岡秀夫 (訳)『バイリンガル教育と第二言
語習得』。東京:大修館書店。[Baker 1st ed. (1993)の翻訳です].)
Ruiz, R. (1984). Orientations in language planning. NABE Journal, 8(2), 15-34.
[Ruiz is the original source that authorities view language as a problem, resource, or right]
Sources (other than the author)
Seigakuin Atlanta International School: http://www.seig.ac.jp/atlanta/
White animals & Multi-colored parakeets: shared on Facebook
Multicultural school: Naito Shingo, JICA Tokyo
Creative Commons Image Attributions
Submersion: http:// flickr.com/photos/bayjade/6799665458/
Cameron Road: http:// flickr.com/photos/joybot/5710830407/
Analyzing Types: http://flickr.com/photos/toby_maloy/102413554/
Segregation: http://flickr.com/photos/stopherjones/5547914546/
Separatist: http://flickr.com/photos/doctorow/536084001/
Transitional: http://flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6408592859/
Maintenance/Heritage: http://flickr.com/photos/e_phots/2345645865/
Mainstream Bilingual: http://flickr.com/photos/sadeq/6929795079/
Mainstream FLT http://flickr.com/photos/presidioofmonterey/5728486268/
Two-way/Dual: http://flickr.com/photos/eyesore9/5314342480/
Multicultural mitten: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6977534343/
Puzzle face: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ashtynrenee/5350445291/
Teacher and students: http://www.flickr.com/photos/usembassyta/6856672754/
Bilingualism and Japanology Intersection: