Perovskit – framtidens solcellsmaterial eller en “hype

Perovskit – framtidens
solcellsmaterial eller en “hype”
Gerrit Boschloo
Dept. of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory
Physical Chemistry
Uppsala University
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite
Perovskite solar cells
Perovskite structure
Small cation
Large cation
CaTiO3 the archetypical perovskite Ca2+
CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite
CH3NH3+ Pb2+
A short history of perovskite solar cells
2009 Miyasaka et al: CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite as q-dot sensitizer to
replace dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)
2012 Park / Grätzel and Snaith / Miyasaka groups independently
develop solid-state DSCs with this perovskite: 10 % efficiency
(more stable)
2013 Efficiencies exceeding 15%. Science and Nature magazines
name perovskite solar cells as one of the breakthroughs of the year.
Certified efficiency of 17.9% . Reported 19.3%
Electron energy
Device structure: pin
Eg = 1.55 eV
VOC = 1. 0 V
500 nm
Device structure
• FTO ; Al
• n – contact : TiO2 (anatase, rutile) ZnO; PCBM
• perovskite
• p- contact: organic HTM (spiroMeOTAD; P3HT;
PEDOT…); CuSCN; Au; graphite; graphene
• Ag
• Optional 3D mesostructure TiO2; ZrO2; Al2O3
Some results from Uppsala
Eff = 13.9% - 13.4 %
Fig.2 J-V curve (a) under AM 1.5 G illumination of 100m W/cm2, and IPCE spectra (b) of ms-TiO2/RPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au,
ms-Al2O3/RPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au and ms-ZrO2/RPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au solar cells.
Is it OK to use lead in solar cells?
Solar cell
9 kg lead
0.75 g Pb m-2
9 kg = 10 000 m2
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite: issues
– Cheap material, easy preparation (spin coating, vacuum
evaporization, etc.)
– Stability?? Water-sensitive
– Hysteresis effect
– Lead content