### Erercises

```Chapter
8
Bonding: General Concepts
207
Erercises
l.
Indicate whether the bonds between the following would be primarily covalent, polar covalent, or ionic:
a. O-H
b. Cs-Cl
2
.
c.
d.
H-Cl
Br-Br
Calculate the energy of interacfion for KC1 if the internuclear distance is
0 .3 I
4 nm.
3.
Calculate tlre energy of interaction between Ag. and Br- if the internuclear of Agtsr is 0.120 nm (in kJ/mole).
4.
Using a periodic table, order the following from lowest to highest electronegativity.
a.
b.
5.
Rb
N
c.
d.
Fr, Mg,
B, AI, C,
Using the periodic chart
of
P, As, Ga, O
Cl, S, P
elements, place the following
in
order from
t}e
lowest
to the
highest
electronegativity:
F, Nb, N, Si, Rb, CA, Pt
6.
Using Figure 8.3 in your textbook, calculate the difference in electronegativity (A) for each of the following
bonds:
c. Fe-O
d. H-O
a. Cl-Cl
b. K-Br
7.
e.
S-H
Place the following in order of increasing polarity:
NaBr, 12, H2O, MnO2, CN-
8.
Which of the following molecules contain polar covalent bonds? List in order of increasing bond polarity.
(Use Fis. 8.3 in your text).
03, P8, NO, COr, CI{4,
9.
10.
II
.
H2S
How will the charge be distributed on each of the following molecules: FIF, NO, CO, and HCI?
Why is it that BeF, is ionic, and BeCl is covalent?
Determine the orientation of the dipole of the following,
if
any.
a. AlCl. (planar with aluminum
b.
c.
d.
atom at the center)
CH3F (tetrahedral with carbon at the center)
NrO (linear with N-N-O structure)
AgClo (planar molecule, silver atom at center, Ag-Cl bonds 90" apart)
12.
Which of the molecules in problem I I contain one or more polar bonds?
13.
Which of the following molecules would you expect to have a dipole moment of zero? Describe the dipole
orientation of the otler 2 molecules.
a. KI
b. CR (tetrahedral structure)
c.
H2Se (bent structure)
be
indicate which element they would
each of the following atoms and
for
ion
stable
most
the
Determine
tro"i".to"i. with if they lost or gained electrons:
14
e'
c' 1
d' Te
a. O
b. Be
Na
+2'
Arrange these in order of
15.
2 to
with argon and have charges from List four ions that are isoelectronic
16.
t1.
sets of atoms'
compound formed ftom the following
Determine the formula of the binary
a. Ca and O
b. KandCl
c. Rb and S
d. Ba and P
binary ionic compounds'
Predict formulas for the following
18.
a. Mg andN
b. Na and F
c. Ca and S
d. Sr and Te
Usingshorthandnotation,listthecoreelectronconfigurationsfortheionsinthecompoundsinproblem18.
19.
20.
to rist the core electron
ionic size. Use rhe shorthand notation
place the folrowing in an order of increasing
ions'
configuration for each ofthe
922+, fg2-, Cst,
a.
b.
21.
I-
Cs*, S2-. O'-, K*
to list the core erectron
ionic size. use shorthand notation
place the fonowing in an order of increasing
ions'
configuration for each ofthe
b'
L. cr, F-, Sf*, ca2*
22.
Na*' Mg2*' Li*' Beh
reactions:
calculate the AII for the following
listed in Table 8'4 of vour text'
Using the bond energy values
z.
b.
c.
zF.r(e)
+ Odg) '
ZH2O
,
COzG)
*
2crlluG) + lbrg)
HCN(g) + zHr(S) -
+
6H'o(g)
CH'NH2@)
a. H-C=C-H(g) + H'(g) -
Cttz=C.!z!e).
zco(e) + 4H'o(e)
NrH(g) (l'IH'?-NHt
trl * 1o,G) ;. N,gi'* z*,(g -
; i"t
1A
25
data
in
enthalpies of formation found
the following reaction' use the
for
AHi
reaction
of
enlhalpy
calculate the
in
in parts
Compare the values obtained
textbook'
ApPendix 4 invour
,,a,,
Hr(g)
and
,.b,,
from
of problem 23 to A}I values calculated
+ Crt{(g) -
Cr}IuG)
AHi
Chapter
26.
8
Draw Lewis dot structures for the following atoms, ions, or molecules:
a.
b.
c.
27.
d.
e.
f.
Sr
Br-
ICN
NH'
CSe,
e. Cl-
P
d.
P5*
c.
d.
AsF,
03
e. NH4*
f. ot
HrO*
BHo-
Draw Lewis dot structures for the followine:
a.
b.
c.
d.
BC13
AsF,
BrOrSrF,o (contains a S-S bond)
Draw Lewis dot structures for the following:
a.
b.
c.
31.
o
Draw Lewis structures for the following:
a.
b.
30.
E.
h.
P3-
H"
b.c
29.
Ga
GaClo-
Draw Lewis structures for the following:
a.
28.
209
Bonding: General Concepts
SbCl3
AlFr3-
PClj
Assign formal charges to each of the labeled atoms.
2-
'?'
tBrl
'o-c-Br.
.l
'a
32.
e
'cr-c-o:
.l
t..
d :s-o:
t"
I
I
;'
.:9
Draw the remaining resonance forms for
\Oo.
I
f :cl:
I
I
\
,,N-N.
,/o
{\
JJ.
How many reasonable resonance structures are there for carbon monoxidg CO. What are the formal charges?
34.
Hydrazine, N2It, is used as a propellant on the Space Shuttle. Draw all reasonable structures for NrHo and
assign formal charges.
35.
Draw a Lewis stnrcture and any resonance forms of benzene,
atoms with one hydrogen bonded to each carbon.)
36.
Predict the structure of each of the followins molecules or ions:
a.
b.
SeFu
Nro
c.
d.
ClFl
clo-
C6ft.
@enzene consists of a ring of six carbon
e.
CF.CI (carbon is central atom)
3,1
.
Discuss the nature of the bonding of
the stereochemistrY exPected
a.
b.
3g.
each of the
c.
d.
COt
cocl2
following. Indicate the nurnber of sigma and pi bonds and
H2CO2
HCN
Using the VSEPR model, determine the molecular geometry for each of the following molecules:
a.
b.
c.
d.
SCl4
Hrse
39. Which of the molecules
Mu
in
ltipl e
40.
C
ho i ce
Questions
The bond in RbF is:
B. Molecular
C. Polar covalent
D.
Ionic
D,
H_O
which of the following bonds do you expect to be polar covalent?
A.
42.
TlClz"
SnClr-
of ions in problem 38 contain polar covalent bonds? Are polar?
A. Covalent
4I.
e.
IF4-
B. H_H
H*N
C.
Cs-F
In a polar bond, electrons:
A. spend equal time around both nuclei
B. are localized between both nuclei
C. spend more time around the bigger nucleus
D. qpend more time around one of the nuclei than the other one
43.
What is the electronegativity difference between At and H?
A.
44.
B.
0.1
B.
Cs-Cl
4.3
D.
0.0
C.
N_O
D.
C-H
c-o, c-At
C. H-F<C-O<Se-Cl<C*At
D. C-At<C-O<Se-Cl<H-F
order the following bonds in order of increasingbond polarity: H-F, Se-Cl,
A. C-At<Se-Cl<C-O<H-F
B. C-O<Se-Cl<H-F<C-At
46.
c.
Which of the following bonds is the most polar one?
A. H_O
45.
-0.1
Order the following bonds in order of decreasing bond polarity:
Ca-O, Ca-Cl, P-Cl, Fe-O, B-O, N-O
A. N-O>P-Cl>B-o>Fe-o> ca-cl>ca-o c. ca-o>ca-cl>Fe-O>B-O>P-Cl>N-O
B. Ca-Cl>P-Cl> Ca-O>Fe-O>B-O>N-O D. Fe-O> Ca-O>B-O>N-O> Ca-Cl>P-Cl
A1
which
A.
4g.
polarity? A11molecules are tetahedral in shape'
of the following molecules would exhibit the greatest
CHC13
B.
CH,
c.
ccl4
which of the following molecules has a dipole moment equal to
A.
SiO,
(tetrahedral)
B'
HrO @ent)
C.
D.
CH3CI
D.
CBrClrF
0?
CrHrF, (tetrahedral)
1
a.
b.
polar covalent
ionic
2.
-7.36 x
J.
E=-l160kJ/mole
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
polar covalent
covalent
c.
d.
Ga, As, P, O
P, S, Cl
10-Ie J
Fr, Rb, Mg
Al, B, c, N
Rb<Ca<Nb<Si<Pt<N<F
0.8 1.0 1.6 1.8 2.2 3.0 4.0
6.
1
c.
d.
a.0
b. 2.0
0.4
t.4
12<CN-<HrO<NaBr<MnOt
0
1.9
0.5 |.4
P, <
8.
or,
9.
IIF; NO; CO; HCI
10.
e.
1.7
HrS, CH4
+- +- +-
2.0
< NO a
CO:
+-
The difference in the electronegativitybetween Be and F is higher than the one between Be and Cl.
3.0
- 1.5 = 1.5 (covalentbond)
4.0-
11. a.
b.
12.
all
13.
b.
1.5 = 2.5 (ionic)
no dipole
negative toward F
c.
d.
negative toward O
no dipole
The opposing bond polarities in a tetrahedral structure cancel out. Thus, CFo has no dipole moment. KI
is a binarylonic compound which has a negative dipole toward I. Selenium will have a partial negative charge
as its electronegativity is greater than that of hydrogen. Thus, the resulting dipole moment of HrSe would be
orientated as shown:
"\
t4.
a. O2-, isoelecuonic with neon
b. Be2*, isoelectronic with helium
c. I-, isoelectronic with xenon
d. Te2-, isoelectronic with xenon
e. Na*, isoelectronic with neon
15.
ca2*, K*,
16
Sl.<Rb.<Br-<Se2-
cl-,
s2-
I
,2"
Se
T
I
V
214
Chapter
17. a.
b.
18. a.
b.
19. a.
b.
20. a.
b.
Bonding: General Concepts
c. RbrS
d. Baf,
CaO
KCI
NaF
c.
d.
[Ne], [Ne]
[Ne], [Ne]
c.
d.
MgrNt
Ba2*
8
(
Cs* <
CaS
SrTe
[Ar], [Ar]
[Kr], [Xel
I- < Te2 all canbe written as [Xel
[Ar], 6r* = [Xel, Ot- = [Ne]
K* < Cs* < 02- < S2-, K* =
<Sl*
Na*
F-= [Ne],61- = [Arl,
C*':
[Ar], Sf.= [Kr]
-- fNel, Na* = [Ne]
Zt. a.
b.
F- <Ca2'<Cl-
22. a.
-4'l8kJ
b.
-2818 kJ
c.
-
23. a.
-157 kJ
b.
-1046 kJ
c.
+95 kJ
24. a.
17 kJ difference
b.
8 kJ difference
25.
Bez* < Li* < Mgh <
AlIi = -136'7
26. a.
b
=
Lf
[H€1,
= [He],
tlrl ,cjt:
1
[ 'ir'
I
e. I'cr- iu-cr:l
l-r-l
["ii{-
a.
TITI+
l-!
b.
i
a.
:F-As-F':
-l
f. [:ii.:13c. ti.
d. [Pl'*
l+
c. |lH-o-Hl
ltl
rill
I
:F:
b.
148 kJ
s.[u-ry-n]
d. .Ga.
.Sr.
.1
28.
Mt-
kJ/mole
,i- c=N,
2'7.
Be2*
d.
rl
"-T-"1
Hl
h.
,Sb:c:S'":
e [,dj']-
ful.
l"-1,-"1
ltl
LHI
:b-o.:
29.
c l,a-;;-6,1
t"t"l
[ :o:
:cFpti:
t"
a.
:cl:
I
d.
30.
?'c. _
b.
a.
:Cl:
I
t"
I
:
31.
32.
b.s
o.
)-"(.
d\oo
d'
.*
:CI:
+1
or /o - - o\, -y'o
<>/^-*oo *;,)-".o
o\Zo
.o
/\
./\
:CI:
e. +l
f.0
-1
a.0c'
cl-f.-cl:
;.
)\-(
+l
JJ.
34.
formal
formal charge of - 1 and oxygen has a
:O = C: is the only reasonable structue. The carbon has a
but
charge'
both C and O have a zero formal
charge. It is possible to draw a struchre such as :C: (i in which
the carbon would be electron deficient (lacks an octet)'
The only reasonable structure has an
N-N
single bond. A11 formal charges = 0.
H.
'\
N-N
HH
,/tt
Each nitrogen has a formal charge of
+l
..,/
,H
\
of - 1'
and the two oxygens that are single have formal charges
t
35.
T
I
Y'
ll
":^/\n/'
"-.2\c/^
Itt
tl
I
Y
I
,/\r<\H
nY
I
H
->
"/t\./\H
I
H
Chapter
216
36. a.
b.
37
. a.
b.
c.
d,
38. a.
b.
39.
c.
d.
octahedral
linear
I
Bonding: General Concepts
e.
tetrahedral
e.
linear
see-saw
linear
2 sigma bonds, 2 pi bonds, and linear geometry
planar geometry
Carbon has 3 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond and trigonal
planar geometry
trigonal
pi
and
bond'
1
bonds,
Carbon has 3 sigma
geomtry
linear
and
pi
bonds'
2
bonds,
Carbon has 2 sigma
c.
d.
see-saw
bent
sllure Planar
trigonalbiPYramidal
polar'
b, c, d, and e have polar covalentbonds; b is
40. D
46. C
52. B
s8. c
64. B
4t.
D
47. A
53. D
s9. A
65. A
42.
D
48.
A
54.
B
60. A
66. B
43. A
49. B
s5. B
61. D
44.
B
50. c
s6. A
62. A
45. A
51. A
s7. C
63. c
```